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Juventus FC

Bwfslot Juventus Football Club atau yang biasa disebut yaitu Juventus serta digemari banyak orang dengan sebutan Juve adalah klub sepak bola asal Italia yang berbasiskan di Turin, Piemonte. Club ini dibuat di tahun 1897 dengan nama Sport Klub Juventus oleh rangkaian pelajar muda di kota Turin yang diketuai oleh Eugenio Canfari serta saudaranya Enrico. Mereka kenakan kaos berwarna hitam putih untuk seragam kandang mulai sejak tahun 1903, serta gunakan beberapa stadion tidak serupa di kurang lebih kota Turin buat mainkan partai kandang.
Mulai sejak bulan September 2011, mereka berkandang di Juventus Fase yang memiliki 41.507 tempat duduk. Stadion itu dibikin di area yang sama juga dengan stadion yang mereka pakai awal kalinya, adalah Stadion Delle Alpi, yang penting dirobohkan untuk membuat Juventus Fase.
Juventus merupakan club paling tua ke dua di Italia, sehabis Genoa yang dibuat di tahun 1893. Mereka ada untuk pertama-tamanya di liga satuan paling atas Italia di tahun 1900, sehabis berubah nama berubah menjadi Football Klub Juventus. Mereka terus ada di laga paling tinggi itu (yang gunakan nama Serie A mulai sejak tahun 1929), terkecuali pada musim 2006–07.
Mulai sejak tahun 1923, Juventus mulai dikendalikan oleh keluarga Agnelli. Pertalian di antara club sepak bola serta dinasti usaha itu sebagai yang paling tua serta terpanjang dalam peristiwa olahraga di Italia. Hal semacam itu membuat Juventus untuk club olahraga jabatanonal pertama di negara itu, sebelum rencana itu berubah menjadi digemari banyak orang. Mereka juga berubah menjadi kebolehan besar di Italia mulai sejak jaman 1930-an, namun juga di Eropa mulai sejak tengah 1970-an. Mulai sejak tengah tahun 1990-an, Juventus udah berubah menjadi salah satunya dari 10 club sepak bola paling kaya di dunia dari bagian nilai asset, pemasukan, serta keuntungan. Mereka juga udah masuk bursa saham Borsa Italiana mulai sejak tahun 2001.
Seiring waktu, Juventus juga berubah menjadi ikon dari budaya Italia. Kemajuan mereka punya resiko yang relevan di tengahnya orang Italia, terlebih di tahun 1930-an serta dasawarsa pertama sehabis Perang Dunia Ke dua yang pengaruhi situasi politik ideologi serta sosial ekonomi banyak pengagum club itu. Masalah ini tercermin pada andil Juventus buat timnas Italia mulai sejak tahun 1920-an, yang lantas disadari untuk satu diantaranya club yang sangat mempunyai pengaruh dalam sepak bola internasional sebab ikut bertindak dalam kemenangan Italia pada Piala Dunia 1934, 1982, serta 2006. Juventus sebagai club yang terbanyak memberikan pemain buat timnas Italia, hampir tak pernah tidak sukses memberikannya pemain mulai sejak tahun 1924.
Disebut Vecchia Signora (“Nyonya Tua “), Juventus merupakan club terhebat di Italia, serta satu diantaranya yang sangat sukses di dunia. Mereka udah menjadi pemenang 35 titel juara liga, 13 gelar Coppa Italia, serta delapan gelar Supercoppa Italiana, dan berubah menjadi pemegang gelar paling banyak buat ke-3 laga itu. Tidak hanya itu, mereka pula udah sukses menggapai dua gelar Piala Interkontinental, dua gelar Liga Champions, satu gelar Piala Winners, tiga gelar Piala UEFA (rekor nasional buat club Italia), satu gelar Piala Intertoto, serta dua gelar Piala Super Eropa.
Sebab prestasi itu, Juventus juga pimpin posisi FIGC dalam soal jumlah trophy pada tingkat nasional, duduki tempat ke-5 di Eropa, serta ke-11 di dunia. Mereka pernah pimpin posisi UEFA saat tujuh musim mulai sejak posisi itu dikenalkan di tahun 1979. Mereka juga berubah menjadi club Italia yang kerap pimpin posisi itu.
Juventus sebagai club dengan jumlah pengagum paling banyak di Italia, serta satu diantaranya yang paling besar di dunia. Tidak serupa dengan adanya banyak partisan club Eropa yang lain yang rata-rata terkonsentrasi di kurang lebih kota asal club itu, pengagum Juventus menyebar di seantero negeri serta pada banyak imigran asal Italia yang tinggal di luar negeri. Mereka juga sebagai satu diantaranya perintis buah pikiran mau membuat European Klub Association, yang dahulu diketahui dengan nama G-14, yang berisi club-club kaya di Eropa.
Di bawah kepemimpinan pelatih Giovanni Trapattoni, mulai sejak tahun 1976 sampai 1986, Juventus sukses menjadi pemenang 13 gelar, termasuk juga enam titel juara liga serta lima gelar internasional. Mereka juga berubah menjadi club pertama selama peristiwa sepak bola Eropa yang memenangkan tiga laga di bawah naungan UEFA: adalah Liga Champions 1984–1985, Piala Winners 1983–1984 (saat ini udah ditiadakan), serta Piala UEFA 1976–1977.
Lantaran sukses mereka memenangkan Piala Super Eropa tahun 1984 serta Piala Interkontinental tahun 1985, Juventus juga berubah menjadi club pertama yang sukses menjadi pemenang seluruhnya titel juara laga sah UEFA serta titel juara dunia. Prestasi ini didukung sehabis mereka pula sukses memenangkan Piala Intertoto tahun 1999, di jaman keemasan selanjutnya di bawah pedoman Marcello Lippi, membuat mereka berubah menjadi hanya satu club jabatanonal Italia yang sukses menggapai seluruhnya titel juara yang kemungkinan mereka capai, baik pada tingkat nasional ataupun internasional.
Pada bulan Desember 2000, Juventus duduki tempat ke-7 dalam posisi club terunggul di dunia vs FIFA. Sembilan tahun lantas, mereka duduki posisi kedua dalam posisi club terunggul di Eropa selama masa ke-20 menurut kajian statistik dari International Federation of Football History & Statistics (IFFHS). Di ke dua posisi itu, Juventus duduki tempat yang bertambah tinggi dibandingkan club asal Italia yang lain.

Daftar isi

  1. Sejarah 1.1 Awal mula 1.2 Dominasi liga 1.3 Pentas Eropa 1.4 Kesuksesan jaman Lippi 1.5 Skandal “Calciopoli” 1.6 Kembali ke Serie A 1.7 Era Allegri
  2. Warna, tanda, serta sapaan
  3. Stadion
  4. Pendukung
  5. Rivalitas
  6. Himne Juventus
  7. Pembinaan pemain muda
  8. Pemain 8.1 Tim pokok 8.2 Pemain yang dipinjami 8.3 Serie A Wanita
  9. Staf Manajemen
  10. Sejarah presidensial
  11. Sejarah manajerial
  12. Penghargaan
  13. Rekor serta statistik club 13.1 Rangking koefisien club UEFA
  14. Kontribusi buat timnas Italia
  15. Informasi Ekonomi 15.1 Produsen seragam serta sponsor 15.2 Kontrak seragam 15.3 Juventus serta kemanusiaan
  16. Catatan
  17. Referensi
  18. Bibliografi 18.1 Buku 18.2 Publikasi yang lain
  19. Pranala luar

Sejarah

Awal Mula

Juventus dibuat akhir tahun 1897 dengan nama Sport Klub Juventus oleh siswa-siswa dari sekolah Massimo D’Azeglio Lyceum yang bertempat di wilayah Liceo D’Azeglio, Turin. Awalnya, club ini dibuat untuk wadah untuk beberapa anak muda yang sama sama berkawan serta pingin memakan banyak waktu dengan jalanan berbarengan, bersenang-senang, dan mengerjakan beragam soal positif. Dua salah satunya merupakan kakak beradik Eugenio serta Enrico Canfari. Beberapa anak muda itu rerata berumur 15 tahun, dengan anak paling tua berusia 17 tahun serta beberapa lainnya berusia di bawah 15 tahun.
Waktu itu, halangan paling sukar buat banyak pemuda itu merupakan bagaimana tekniknya mendapatkan tempat untuk dibuat tempat. Satu diantaranya pendiri Juventus, Enrico Canfari, selanjutnya mendapatkan satu tempat sebagai bangunan dengan halaman yang dikelilingi tembok, punya empat tempat, satu kanopi, loteng, serta keran air minum. Sesudah itu, mereka juga menghadirkan percakapan untuk tentukan nama club, yang selanjutnya bersambung dengan perbincangan dahsyat antara mereka. Satu team condong tak menyenangi pemanfaatan nama latin, dan team lainnya malahan menyenangi beberapa nama classic, serta bekasnya sebagai team netral. Lantas, ada tiga nama yang ditetapkan untuk diseleksi, adalah “Societa Lewat Port”, “Societa sportive Massimo D’Azeglio”, serta “Sport Klub Juventus”. Nama paling akhir selanjutnya diseleksi tidak dengan banyak keberatan, serta sah jadi nama club mereka. Tapi, 2 tahun lantas, mereka berubah nama jadi Football Klub Juventus.
Club itu selanjutnya masuk dengan Kejuaraan Sepak Bola Italia di tahun 1900. Di tahun 1904, satu orang bisnisman yang namanya Ajmone-Marsan ambil alih unsur keuangan Juventus, serta membuat mereka dapat berubah tempat latihan dari Piazza d’Armi ke Velodrome Umberto I yang keadaannya bertambah pantas. Di periode itu, mereka gunakan seragam pink-hitam. Juventus sukses memenangi laga liga untuk pertama-tamanya di tahun 1905. Waktu itu, mereka udah gunakan seragam hitam-putih, memperoleh ide dari club asal Inggris Notts County.
Di tahun 1906, ada sekian banyak staf Juventus yang pingin mengalihkan Juventus dari kota Turin. Presiden Alfred Dick berasa tak suka dengan situasi itu, serta hendak memutuskan untuk mundur berbarengan sejumlah pemain bintang serta membuat club baru yang namanya Torino. Konflik di antara Juventus serta Torino terus bersambung sampai sekarang, serta kompetisi di antara dua-duanya diketahui dengan nama Derby della Mole. Di periode itu, Juventus berusaha untuk kembali lagi membuat club sehabis perpecahan, serta mengupayakan konsisten bertahan ditengah-tengah kemelut Perang Dunia I.

Dominasi Liga

Pemilik FIAT, Edoardo Agnelli, ambil alih kendali atas club Juventus di tahun 1923, serta langsung membuat stadion baru. Masalah ini juga menunjang Juventus untuk menggapai scudetto (titel juara liga) yang ke dua pada musim 1925–26, sehabis kalahkan Alba Roma dengan score agregat 12-1 (Antonio Vojak membuat banyak gol penting pada musim itu). Pada masa 1930-an, Juventus udah sukses jadi kebolehan pokok di sepak bola Italia dengan jadi club jabatanonal pertama di negara itu serta club dengan pangkal pengagum pertama yang menyebar di banyak kota. Masalah ini menyuport mereka untuk mendapati titel juara liga saat 5 kali beruntun mulai sejak tahun 1930 sampai 1935 (empat gelar pertama diperoleh di bawah arahan pelatih Carlo Carcano). Tidak hanya itu, Juventus juga berperan dalam scuad timnas Italia yang dilatih oleh Vittorio Pozzo, yang sukses jadi juara dunia di tahun 1934. Sejumlah pemain bintang Juventus yang ikut bela Italia waktu itu misalnya Raimundo Orsi, Luigi Bertolini, Giovanni Ferrari serta Luis Monti.
Juventus lantas mengalihkan kandang mereka ke Stadio Comunale, akan tetapi tidak sukses merajai sepak bola Italia akhir 1930-an serta awal 1940-an. Mereka serta harus mengaku kelebihan club sekota, Torino. Secercah angan-angan nampak waktu mereka sukses memenangi Piala Italia untuk pertama-tamanya pada musim 1937-38 dengan kalahkan Torino. Mereka sempat pernah menyelesaikan musim 1940-41 di tempat ke-6, tapi sukses menggapai Piala Italia ke dua pada musim seterusnya. Pada periode ini, Italia tengah ikuti Perang Dunia II, maka dari itu halangi jalannya liga. Di tahun 1944, Juventus ikuti satu kontes lokal yang selanjutnya batal dituntaskan. Pada tanggal 14 Oktober, liga kembali lagi bergeser dengan kompetisi derby di antara Juventus serta Torino. Juventus sukses kalahkan lawan sekotanya dengan score 2-1, akan tetapi Torino yang waktu itu diketahui untuk “Grande Torino” sukses menyelesaikan musim untuk juara.
Sehabis Perang Dunia II, banyak tanggal 22 Juli 1945, Gianni Agnelli dipilih untuk presiden kehormatan club. Disaat masa kepemimpinannya, Agnelli datangkan sejumlah pemain baru seperti Giampiero Boniperti, Muccinelli, serta pemain dari Denmark John Hansen. Mereka sukses memenangi liga pada musim 1949–50 serta 1951–52. Gelar pada tahun 1950 mereka capai melalui kepemimpinan pelatih berasal dari Inggris, Jesse Carver.
Pada tanggal 18 September 1954, Gianni Agnelli tinggalkan Juventus. Pada tahun itu, Juventus cuma sukses menyelesaikan musim di tempat ke-7. Pada musim seterusnya, barisan pemain muda di bawah kepemimpinan pelatih Puppo mengupayakan untuk bangun. Semangat mereka juga makin bertambah sehabis masuknya Umberto Agnelli untuk komisioner club pada tahun 1955.
Pada musim 1957–58, Juventus menarik dua striker baru, adalah John Charles yang datang dari Wales, serta Omar Sivori yang datang dari Argentina. Mereka juga sukses menjadi lagi juara, serta memiliki hak memakai sinyal bintang kehormatan lantaran udah memenangi 10 titel juara liga. Mereka juga jadi club Italia pertama yang memperoleh penghargaan itu. Pada musim itu, Sívori jadi pemain pertama Juventus yang sukses mendapati gelar Pemain Terunggul Eropa. Pada musim seterusnya, mereka kalahkan Fiorentina di final Coppa Italia, serta untuk pertama-tamanya sukses mendapati gelar ganda (Serie A serta Coppa Italia). Boniperti hendak memutuskan untuk pensiun di tahun 1961, dengan posisi untuk pembuat gol paling banyak selamanya waktu buat Juventus dengan 182 gol di semua laga. Rekor itu bertahan saat 45 tahun.
Pada masa 1960-an, Juventus cuma sukses 1x memenangi liga, adalah pada musim 1966–67. Tapi, pada awal tahun 1970-an, Juventus kembali lagi menguatkan tempat mereka di sepak bola Italia di bawah arahan eks pemain mereka Čestmír Vycpálek. Pada musim 1970-71, Juventus sukses menggapai final Fairs Cup (cikal dapat Piala UEFA), tapi harus kalah dari Leeds United. Di liga, tempat mereka sempat pernah terancam lantaran luka yang dirasakan pemain jagoan mereka Roberto Bettega. Untungnya, mereka konsisten dapat bermain berkelanjutan serta menggapai gelar scudetto ke-14.
Pada musim 1972-73, mereka kehadiran sejumlah pemain baru, seperti Dino Zoff serta Jose Altafini dari Napoli. Waktu itu, mereka ditempatkan pada skedul yang padat di Serie A serta laga Eropa. Juventus sukses mengambil gelar scudetto ke-15 sehabis membalap AC Milan di beberapa detik akhir, sehabis club asal kota Milan itu lewat cara mengagetkan kalah di kompetisi paling akhir mereka. Juventus juga sukses masuk final Liga Champions, tapi harus kalah dari Ajax Amsterdam yang didukung oleh Johan Crujff.
Di musim-musim seterusnya, mereka sukses meningkatkan tiga titel juara liga pada musim 1974-75, 1976–77, serta 1977–78. Prestasi ini mereka capai lantaran performa bersinar bek Gaetano Scirea serta kepemimpinan pelatih Giovanni Trapattoni, yang bawa Juventus menggapai gelar pertama di medan Eropa, yang pasti gelar Piala UEFA tahun 1977. Saat masa Trapattoni, beberapa pemain Juventus yang lantas jadi tulang punggung timnas Italia yang sukses di bawah pedoman pelatih Enzo Bearzot, yang sukses tampil prima di Piala Dunia 1978, Euro 1980, serta memenangi Piala Dunia 1982.

Pentas Eropa

Di saat kepelatihan Trapattoni di tahun 1980-an, Juventus menggapai keberhasilan besar dengan menentramkan gelar Serie A sekitar 4x. Di tahun 1984, mereka menggapai titel juara liga ke-20, maka dari itu memiliki hak memakai bintang penambahan di seragam mereka, jadi hanya satu club Italia yang sukses menggapai prestasi itu. Enam pemain Juventus ikut masuk dengan timnas Italia sebagai juara Piala Dunia 1982. Paolo Rossi sebagai pemain Juventus yang sangat mengundang perhatian, sampai dia sukses menggapai penghargaan untuk Player of the Kompetisi serta jadi Pemain Terunggul Eropa di tahun 1982.
Juventus menjadi lagi pujaan di Serie A musim 1982-83 sehabis kehadiran bintang Perancis, Michel Platini. Sayangnya, skedul mereka yang padat dengan laga Eropa membuat mereka tak berkelanjutan di liga domestik. Sempat pernah cuma berbeda 3 point dengan Roma yang duduki tempat pucuk, Juventus tidak sukses kejar serta harus memasrahkan club asal ibukota itu jadi juara. Di Eropa, Juventus sukses sukses ke fase final Liga Champions, tapi harus kalah dari Hamburg. Pada musim itu, mereka cuma sukses menggapai gelar Piala Italia serta Piala Interkontinental.
Pada musim panas 1983, Juventus harus kehilangan dua pilar pokok mereka. Dino Zoff menggantung sepatu di umur 41 tahun, dan Bettega pindah ke Kanada untuk menyelesaikan karir disana. Mereka selanjutnya menarik penjaga gawang baru dari Avellino, adalah Stefano Tacconi serta Beniamino Vinola. Dan Nico Penzo jadi pendamping Rossi di barisan depan. Pada waktu itu, mereka harus fokus penuh di dua laga, adalah liga domestik serta Piala Winner. Hasilnya, lewat performa yang berkelanjutan selama musim, Juventus sukses menegaskan titel juara liga satu minggu sebelum laga berakhir. Prestasi ini juga ditambah sukses mereka memenangi Piala Winner dengan kalahkan Porto 2-1 di Basel pada tanggal 16 Mei 1984.
Pada musim seterusnya, Juventus tidak sukses menggapai titel juara Serie A yang jatuh ke tangan Hellas Verona. Tapi mereka sukses memenangi Liga Champions di tahun 1985 melalui gol hanya satu Platini di partai final. Sayangnya, kompetisi penutup menentang Liverpool FC yang berjalan di Stadion Heysel Belgia harus diwarnai dengan kematian 39 supporter Juventus gara-gara bentrok dengan banyak hooligans partisan Liverpool. Untuk hukuman dari tragedi itu, semua club asal Inggris dilarang untuk ikuti kejuaraan Eropa saat lima tahun.
Sukses memenangi Liga Champions itu membuat Juventus jadi hanya satu club yang sukses memenangi tiga laga pokok UEFA. Ditambah sukses mereka memenangi Intercontinental Cup, Juventus juga jadi hanya satu club sampai sekarang yang sukses menjadi pemenang seluruhnya titel juara laga sah UEFA serta titel juara dunia. Prestasi itu kian didukung dengan keberhasilan memenangi Piala Intertoto di tahun 1999.
Michel Platini, bintang Juventus pada waktu itu, pula sukses jadi pemain terunggul Eropa untuk yang ke-tiga kalinya lewat cara beruntun. Kalau ditambah gelar sama yang diperoleh Paolo Rossi di tahun 1982, jadi Juventus udah menggapai gelar itu saat 4x beruntun.
Juventus sempat pernah menggapai gelar scudetto pada musim 1985-86, yang sebagai tahun paling akhir Trapattoni di Juventus. Seterusnya, Juventus terus tidak sukses memberikan perform terunggul, serta harus mengaku kelebihan Napoli yang didukung Diego Maradona, serta kebangkitan dua club asal kota Milan, adalah AC Milan serta Inter Milan.
Di tahun 1990, Juventus ganti ke kandang baru mereka, adalah Stadio Delle Alpi, yang dibikin saat Piala Dunia 1990.

Keberhasilan era Lippi

Marcello Lippi ambil alih tempat pelatih Juventus pada awal musim 1994-95. Dia langsung membawa Juventus memenangi Serie A untuk pertama-tamanya mulai sejak tengah tahun 1980-an pada musim itu, komplet dengan titel juara Coppa Italia. Pemain bintang mereka waktu itu merupakan Ciro Ferrara, Roberto Baggio, Gianluca Vialli serta pemain muda punya bakat namanya Alessandro Del Piero. Lippi lantas pimpin Juventus untuk memenangi Liga Champions Eropa pada musim seterusnya, dengan kalahkan Ajax Amsterdam lewat drama beradu penalti, sehabis score seimbang 1-1 pada fase normal. Fabrizio Ravanelli memberikan sumbangan 1 gol untuk Juve di kompetisi itu.
Sehabis sukses bangun serta memenangi Liga Champions, Juventus tak selanjutnya tinggal diam. Mereka kembali lagi menarik sejumlah pemain bintang, seperti Zinedine Zidane, Filippo Inzaghi serta Edgar Davids. Mereka juga sukses memenangi Serie A pada musim 1996–97 serta 1997–98, Piala Super UEFA 1996, serta Piala Interkontinental 1996. Juventus pula sukses menggapai final Liga Champions di tahun 1997 serta 1998, akan tetapi harus tunduk oleh Borussia Dortmund (Jerman) serta Real Madrid (Spanyol).
Lippi pernah diganti oleh Carlo Ancelotti saat dua 1/2 musim. Dia kembali lagi tahun 2001, menyalip pemecatan pada Ancelotti, serta langsung menarik beberapa nama besar, seperti Gianluigi Buffon, David Trezeguet, Pavel Nedvěd, serta Lilian Thuram. Mereka sukses memenangi Serie A pada musim 2001–02 serta 2002-03. Di tahun 2003, berlangsung All Italian Final di Liga Champions, tapi Juventus harus kalah dari Milan melalui beradu penalti sehabis laga pada waktu normal usai tidak dengan gol. Diakhir musim seterusnya, Lippi dipilih menjadi pelatih timnas Italia, bikin dia harus menyelesaikan satu diantaranya periode kepelatihan paling sukses selama peristiwa Juventus.

Skandal “Calciopoli”

Fabio Capello jadi pelatih Juventus di tahun 2004, serta bawa club itu menggapai dua gelar Serie A lewat cara berturutan. Tapi, pada bulan Mei 2006, Juventus sebagai salah satunya dari lima club Serie A yang ditautkan dengan skandal penyusunan score. Lantaran perkara itu, mereka juga di letakkan di urutan terangkuth buat musim itu, serta harus terdegradasi ke Serie B buat pertama-tamanya selama peristiwa. Titel juara yang mereka gapai pada musim 2004–05 dilepas, serta urutan paling atas buat musim 2005–06 diberikan pada Inter Milan.
Sehabis perkara itu, beberapa pemain kunci mereka yang tinggalkan club lantaran tak mau bermain di Serie B, seperti Lilian Thuram, penyerang Zlatan Ibrahimović, serta bek tengah Fabio Cannavaro. Tapi, beberapa nama besar seperti Gianluigi Buffon, Alessandro Del Piero, David Trezeguet, serta Pavel Nedvěd, konsisten bertahan buat menunjang Juventus kembali lagi Serie A. Banyak pemain club Primavera (junior) seperti Sebastian Giovinco serta Claudio Marchisio juga langsung dimainkan di club pokok. Juventus menggapai titel juara Serie B pada musim 2006-07, serta punya hak buat kembali lagi beraksi di Serie A. Si kapten, Del Piero, sukses jadi pembuat gol paling banyak dengan 21 gol.
Di tahun 2010, Juventus perhitungkan buat ajukan banding pada pencabutan titel juara mereka pada musim 2004-05 serta 2005-06, sehabis memandang hasil persidangan yang bersangkutan dengan skandal itu. Gugatan pada eks General Pimpinan Juventus Luciano Moggi, yang dirasa bertindak kriminil, tidak diterima beberapa oleh Mahkamah Agung Italia pada tanggal 23 Maret 2015. Juventus juga menuntut FIGC buat bayar tukar rugi sebesar €443 juta atas kerugian yang mereka terima karena kemerosotan ke Serie B di tahun 2006. Presiden FIGC Carlo Tavecchio tawarkan dialog buat kembalikan titel juara Juventus, kalau Juventus pengen menarik tuntutan itu. Pada tanggal 9 September 2015, Mahkamah Agung Italia keluarkan dokumen dengan tebal 150 halaman yang mengatakan ketentuan akhir berkaitan perkara itu. Meskipun beberapa gugatan pada Moggi dihentikan (tidak dengan persidangan baru), pengadilan konsisten menyebutkan jika Moggi lewat cara aktif berkaitan dengan perkara penyimpangan yang memberikan keuntungan Juventus serta dianya. Di tahun 2016, pengadilan TAR menampik keinginan kompensasi dari Juventus.

Kembali lagi ke Serie A

Waktu kembali lagi Serie A pada musim 2007-08, Juventus menunjuk eks pimpinan Chelsea Claudio Ranieri jadi pelatih. Mereka sukses menggapai urutan ke-tiga diakhir musim, serta punya hak buat beraksi di Liga Champions musim 2008–09 melalui fase kwalifikasi ke-tiga. Juventus sukses menggapai sesi group, serta kalahkan Real Madrid baik di laga kandang atau tandang. Sayangnya, mereka harus tunduk dari Chelsea pada fase tumbang. Lantaran sekelompok hasil jelek, Ranieri selanjutnya disingkirkan serta diganti oleh Ciro Ferrara jadi pelatih sesaat di dua laga paling akhir Serie A musim 2008-09. Ferrara lantas dipilih jadi pelatih konsisten buat musim seterusnya.
Debut Ferrara tidak diwarnai dengan keberhasilan. Juventus harus tergusur dari Liga Champions serta Coppa Italia, dan cuma sukses duduki urutan ke-6 di klassemen Serie A, akhir bulan Januari 2010. Hasil jelek itu bikin Ferrara selanjutnya disingkirkan serta diganti oleh Alberto Zaccheroni jadi pelatih sesaat. Zaccheroni tidak berhasil melakukan perbaikan club, serta Juventus juga menyelesaikan musim di urutan ke-7.
Pada musim 2010-11, urutan Jean-Claude Blanc jadi Presiden club diganti oleh Andrea Agnelli. Cara pertama yang dijalankan Agnelli sehabis jadi Presiden merupakan menukar Zaccheroni dengan pelatih Sampdoria Luigi Del Neri, serta menukar Direktur Olahraga mereka Alessio Secco dengan Giuseppe Marotta. Sayangnya, Del Neri pula tidak berhasil mengganti hoki Juventus serta disingkirkan. Eks pemain Juventus yang baru-baru ini bawa Siena promo ke Serie A, Antonio Conte, dipilih buat isi urutan Del Neri. Pada bulan September 2011, Juventus menempatkan kandang mereka ke Juventus Fase.
Bersama-sama Conte jadi pelatih, Juventus menggapai hasil yang didambakan. Mereka gak terkalahkan selama musim 2011-12 di Serie A. Di paruh ke-2 musim, mereka ringkas cuma beradu dengan Milan buat mempertandingkan urutan pertama. Juventus menjadi pemenang gelar itu di minggu ke-37 sehabis kalahkan Cagliari 2-0, serta Milan kalah dari Internazionale dengan score 4-2. Sehabis kemenangan 3-1 atas Atalanta di minggu paling akhir, Juventus juga sah jadi club pertama yang menyelesaikan Serie A tidak dengan terkalahkan (dalam laga yang gunakan pola 38 laga). Sejumlah prestasi lain yang mereka gapai waktu itu merupakan kemenangan tandang paling besar waktu kalahkan Fiorentina dengan score 5-0, rekor pertahanan terunggul di Serie A (cuma kecurian 20 kali, sekurang-kurangnya dalam pola liga yang diperlukan waktu ini), yang sebagai rekor pertahanan terunggul ke-2 antara beberapa liga besar Eropa.
Pada musim 2013–14, Juventus menggapai scudetto ke-tiga lewat cara berturutan bersama-sama Antonio Conte. Pada musim itu, mereka bahkan juga sukses menyatukan rekor point paling banyak (102) dengan 33 kemenangan. Itu merupakan gelar ke-30 selama peristiwa Juventus. Mereka juga sukses menggapai fase semi final di Europa League, akan tetapi harus tereliminasi oleh Benfica yang pada laga ke-2 bermain dengan 10 orang serta mengimplementasikan pertahanan catenaccio. Mereka juga tidak berhasil meluncur ke fase final yang berjalan di kandang mereka sendiri, Juventus Fase.
Diakhir musim, Antonio Conte hendak memutuskan buat mundur serta diganti oleh Massimiliano Allegri.

Era Allegri

Di bawah kepemimpin eks pelatih Milan itu, Juventus sukses menggapai titel juara Serie A sejumlah 5 kali berturutan. Kalau ditambah lagi dengan titel juara yang diperoleh bersama-sama Conte, jadi mereka sudah jadi scudetto saat 8x berturutan. Bersama-sama Allegri, Juventus sukses masuk dalam fase final Liga Champions sejumlah kedua kalinya, meskipun selamanya tidak berhasil di dua peluang itu.
Pada musim pertama Allegri, 2014–15, Juventus sukses menggapai gelar Serie ke-31 serta titel juara Coppa Italia ke-10. Mereka juga kalahkan Real Madrid di fase semi final Liga Champions dengan agregat 3-2, serta punya hak buat hadapi Barcelona dalam fase final yang berjalan di Berlin. Ini merupakan pertama-tamanya Juventus sukses masuk dalam fase final Liga Champions mulai sejak musim 2002-03. Sayangnya, Juventus harus tunduk 1-3 melalui gol kilat Ivan Rakitić, yang diiringi oleh gol balasan Alvaro Morata saat menit ke-55. Barcelona kembali lagi unggul lantaran gol Luis Suárez saat menit ke-70, diiringi dengan gol Neymar saat menit akhir melalui pola pukulan balik.
Pada tanggal 25 April 2016, Juventus mendapati gelar ke-32 mereka serta yang ke-5 lewat cara berturutan. Kali terakhir mereka memenangi Serie A sejumlah 5 kali berturutan merupakan pada musim 1930-31 sampai 1934-35. Mereka sukses menegaskan gelar juara sehabis Napoli tunduk dari Roma, bikin Juventus gak lagi dapat tersusul lewat cara matematis, meskipun liga masih tersisa tiga laga lagi. Pada tanggal 21 Mei, Juventus kembali lagi menggapai Coppa Italia yang ke-11 serta kedua kalinya lewat cara berturutan. Masalah ini bikin Juventus jadi club pertama di Italia yang sukses menggabungkan gelar Serie A serta Coppa Italia saat dua musim berturutan.
Pada tanggal 17 Mei 2017, Juventus memenangi Coppa Italia ke-12 sehabis menang 2-0 atas Lazio di fase final. Mereka juga jadi club pertama di Italia yang sukses memenangi Coppa Italia saat 3 kali berturutan. Empat hari lantas, Juventus menegaskan diri jadi club pertama di Italia yang sukses memenangi liga saat 6x berturutan. Pada tanggal 3 Juni 2017, Juventus kembali lagi sukses ke fase final Liga Champions ke-2 mereka saat 3 tahun paling akhir. Sayangnya, mereka kembali lagi tidak berhasil sehabis kalah 1-4 dari juara bertahan Real Madrid. 10 menit sebelum semprit akhir dibunyikan, berlangsung peristiwa keonaran di Turin yang sebabkan 2 orang wafat serta beberapa ribu orang yang lain luka. Masalah ini dipicu tindakan penjarahan dengan semprotan merica yang disalahartikan jadi gempuran bom, maka dari itu kekhawatiran juga berlangsung.
Pada musim 2017–18, Juventus kembali lagi menggapai gelar Coppa Italia yang ke-4 lewat cara berturutan sehabis kalahkan Milan dengan score 4-0 di fase final. Mereka juga sukses menggapai titel juara ke tujuh lewat cara berturutan, serta menguatkan supremasi mereka di liga domestik.
Pada awal musim 2018–19, Juventus pecahkan rekor transfer paling mahal buat pemain di atas 30 tahun, serta rekor transfer paling mahal oleh club asal Italia, sewaktu mereka menarik pemain berumur 33 tahun Cristiano Ronaldo. Mereka menggandeng Ronaldo dari Real Madrid dengan cost €112 juta. Ronaldo juga jadi pemain kunci yang bawa Juventus kembali lagi menggapai titel juara di Serie A, ke-8 lewat cara berturutan. Diakhir musim, Juventus mengakhiri Allegri, serta menarik eks pelatih Napoli Maurizio Sarri yang baru-baru ini sukses bawa Chelsea memenangi Europa League.

Warna Logo dan Sebutan

Juventus sudah bermain dengan seragam berwarna hitam serta putih ala zebra, dengan celana berwarna putih atau hitam, mulai sejak tahun 1903. Awal kalinya, Juventus gunakan seragam berwarna pink dengan dasi hitam, yang dibikin oleh ayah dari satu diantaranya pemain mereka pada waktu itu. Tapi sehabis dicuci beberapa kali, warna seragam itu juga menipis, maka dari itu di tahun 1903 club hendak memutuskan buat menukar seragam. Mereka menanyakan pada John Savage, salah satu orang pemain mereka yang datang dari Inggris, apa dia punya kenalan di Inggris yang dapat memasok seragam buat club. Savage juga mengabari temannya yang tinggal di Nottingham, yang disebut fans dari club Notts County. Rekan Savage itu selanjutnya mengantarkan seragam hitam putih, seperti seragam yang diperlukan Notts County. Seragam itu juga terus diperlukan Juventus sampai sekarang.
Tanda sah Juventus sudah berulangkali alami perkembangan serta modifikasi kecil mulai sejak tahun 1920-an. Sebelum tahun 1980-an, tanda Juventus berwujud perisai oval dengan garis hitam putih. Tulisan Juventus di sisi atas perisai berwujud cekung dengan background biru yang disebut lambang kota Turin. Di sisi bawah perisai ada gambar zebra serta mahkota emas yang mempunyai ukuran lumayan besar. Di tahun 1980-an, Juventus pernah gunakan siluet seekor zebra jadi tanda, sebelum kembali ke bentuk perisai oval unik club-club Italia di tahun 1990.
Di tahun 2004, Juventus kembali lagi mengganti tanda. Mereka konsisten gunakan bentuk perisai oval dengan lima garis hitam putih, tapi tulisan Juventus di sisi atas dibikin berwujud cembung dengan suatu garis lengkung berwarna emas (yang melambatgkan kehormatan) di bawahnya. Di sisi bawah, gambar zebra ditukar jadi siluet seekor banteng yang sebagai lambang kota Turin. Di atas siluet itu, ada suatu mahkota hitam dengan ukuran bertambah kecil yang melambatgkan Augusta Tourinorum, suatu kota tua di jaman Romawi yang disebut cikal dapat kota Turin sekarang.
Juventus merupakan club pertama dalam peristiwa sepakbola dunia yang gunakan lambang bintang jadi sinyal jika mereka sudah memenangi liga domestik sejumlah sepuluh kali. Mereka mulai menempatkan lambang bintang di atas tanda mereka di tahun 1958, yang lantas pula diiringi oleh club-club lain.
Juventus menggapai gelar ke-30 sehabis memenangi Serie A pada musim 2011–12. Tapi lantaran titel juara mereka pada musim 2004–05 serta 2005–06 ditarik lantaran perkiraan kesertaan dalam skandal penyusunan score di tahun 2006, FIGC merasa jika keseluruhan titel juara mereka lewat cara sah masih sejumlah 28. Juventus juga hendak memutuskan tidak untuk gunakan lambang bintang sekalipun pada musim sesudah itu. Juventus menggapai gelar sah ke-30 mereka pada musim 2013–14 serta punya hak kenakan tiga bintang, tapi presiden Andrea Agnelli menyampaikan jika faksinya dapat stop gunakan lambang itu sampai ada club Italia lain yang memenangi Serie A sejumlah 20 kali serta punya hak kenakan dua bintang, buat memberikan superioritas Juventus. Tapi, pada musim 2015–16, Juventus kembali lagi gunakan lambang bintang serta mengimbuhkan bintang ke-tiga di seragam mereka.
Pada bulan Januari 2017, presiden Andrea Agnelli memberitakan perkembangan teranyar buat tanda Juventus. Tanda baru itu punya tulisan “Juventus” di sisi atas, dengan dua huruf J kapital dengan style font yang tidak sama serta terpasang bersama-sama, maka dari itu sela antara kedua-duanya pula memberikan huruf J. Agnelli menyampaikan jika tanda itu melambatgkan “teknik hidup Juventus”.
Juventus memberitakan peluncuran suatu project baru teristimewa buat pengagum beberapa anak yang namanya JKids, pada bulan September 2015. Pada waktu yang sama, Juventus pula mengenalkan suatu maskot baru buat banyak fans yang namanya J. J merupakan seekor zebra berwujud kartun, dengan garis hitam putih berlapis emas di badannya, mata berwarna emas, serta tiga lambang bintang di sisi depan lehernya. J ada untuk pertama-tamanya di Juventus Fase pada tanggal 12 September 2015.
Selama peristiwa, Juventus udah punya sejumlah nama sapaan. La Vecchia Signora (The Old Lady dalam Bahasa Inggris atau Sang Nyonya Tua dalam Bahasa Indonesia) adalah contoh sapaan yang terkondang. Kata “tua” dalam sapaan itu sesuatu permainan kata, sebab kata Juventus sendiri malahan bermakna “muda” dalam Bahasa Latin. Nama Juventus diperlukan sebab beberapa pemain bintang club itu sampai tengah tahun 1930-an relatif berumur muda. Kata “nyonya” dalam sapaan itu adalah istilah yang diperlukan beberapa fans sewaktu mengatakan Juventus sebelum jaman 1930-an.
Juventus pula memperoleh sapaan La Fidanzata d’Italia (The Girlfriend of Italy dalam Bahasa Inggris atau Si Kekasih Italia dalam Bahasa Indonesia), sebab bertahun-tahun mereka memperoleh support besar dari beberapa imigran pekerja asal Italia Selatan (utamanya kota Napoli serta Palermo), yang kerja untuk FIAT di kota Turin mulai sejak tahun 1930-an. Istilah lain yang diserahkan ke Juventus merupakan La Madama (Bahasa Piedmont untuk Madam), I Bianconeri (Hitam Putih), serta Le Zebre (Sang Zebra) yang memberikan warna seragam mereka.
I Gobbi (Sang Bungkuk) merupakan sapaan yang diperlukan untuk beberapa supporter Juventus, tapi seringkali diperlukan pula untuk beberapa pemain. Riwayat sapaan itu merupakan sewaktu beberapa pemain Juventus masih gunakan seragam mempunyai ukuran besar dengan tali pengait yang terbuka di sisi dada, di tahun 1950-an. Waktu pemain lari di dalam lapangan, seragam mereka lantas mengembang di sisi punggung seperti wajahut, maka dari itu mereka tampak menyerupai sama orang bungkuk.
Himne sah Juventus berjudul Juve (Storia di un Grande Amore) atau Juve (Kejadian Cinta yang Agung) dalam Bahasa Indonesia, yang dicatat oleh Alessandra Torre serta Claudio Guidetti, dinyanyikan oleh Paolo Belli di tahun 2007. Di tahun 2016, satu film dokumenter perihal Juventus yang berjudul Black and White Stripes: The Juventus Story dibuat oleh La Villa Brothers. Pada 16 Februari 2018, tiga episode awal dari seri dokumenter berjudul First Kubu: Juventus dilaunching di Netflix. Seri dokumenter itu ikuti kesibukan beberapa pemain baik di atau di luar lapangan selama musim.

Stadion

Sehabis main di Parco del Valentino serta Parco Cittadella pada dua musim pertama (1897 serta 1898), Juventus mainkan laga kandang mereka di Piazza d’Armi Fase sampai tahun 1908, terkecuali di tahun 1905 (tahun pertama mereka menggapai gelar scudetto) serta 1906 waktu partai kandang mereka dimainkan di Corso Re Umberto.
Mulai sejak tahun 1909 sampai 1922, Juventus main di Corso Sebastopoli Camp, sebelum ganti di tahun seterusnya ke Corso Marsiglia Camp serta bertahan disana sampai tahun 1933. Saat jarak waktu itu, mereka sukses menjadi pemenang empat titel juara liga. Akhir tahun 1933, Juventus mulai main di Stadio Mussolini yang baru diresmikan saat Piala Dunia 1934. Sehabis Perang Dunia II, stadion itu berubah nama jadi Stadio Comunale Vittorio Pozzo. Juventus gunakan stadion itu untuk menyelenggarakan partai kandang saat 57 tahun, serta mainkan keseluruhan 890 laga liga. Walau begitu, Juventus konsisten gunakan stadion itu untuk session latihan sampai bulan Juli 2003.
Mulai sejak tahun 1990 sampai musim 2005–06, club asal kota Turin itu mainkan partai kandang mereka di Stadion Delle Alpi, yang dibuat untuk Piala Dunia 1990. Kadangkala, mereka pula gunakan stadion lain seperti Renzo Barbera di Palermo, Dino Manuzzi di Cesena, serta San Siro di Milan.
Pada bulan Agustus 2006, Juventus kembali lagi main di Stadio Comunale, yang saat ini diketahui untuk Stadion Olimpico, sehabis stadion itu di renovasi saat Olimpiade Musim Dingin 2006.
Pada bulan November 2008, Juventus memberitakan kalau mereka dapat menginvestasikan dana kurang lebih €120 juta untuk bangun stadion baru yang namanya Juventus Fase, di sisa area Stadio Delle Alpi. Tidak serupa dengan stadion awal kalinya, Juventus Fase tidak punyai trek lari, serta jarak di antara kursi pemirsa serta pinggir lapangan cuma 7,5 mtr.. Stadion memiliki 41.507 pemirsa itu mulai dibuat pada musim semi tahun 2009, serta dibuka lewat cara sah pada tanggal 8 September 2011, saat musim 2011–12. Mulai sejak tanggal 1 Juli 2017, Juventus Fase diketahui lewat cara komersil untuk Allianz Fase saat enam musim sampai 30 Juni 2023.

Pendukung

Juventus adalah satu diantaranya club sepak bola dengan jumlah partisan paling besar di Italia, dengan jumlah tifoso nyaris 12 juta orang (32.5% dari keseluruhan tifosi bola di Italia), mengacu pada kajian yang dijalankan pada Agustus 2008 oleh harian La Repubblica. Tidak hanya itu, Juventus pula adalah satu diantaranya club dengan jumlah suporter paling besar di dunia, dengan jumlah fans hampir menggapai 170 juta orang (43 juta orang di Eropa), selebihnya ada pada Mediterrania, yang kebanyakkan diisi oleh imigran Italia. Club Turin ini pula punya fans klub yang lumayan besar di penjuru dunia, antara lainnya di Indonesia adalah Juventini Indonesia.
Tiket-tiket laga kandang Juve memang tak selamanya habis tiap kali Juve berlaga di Seri-A atau Eropa, sebab rata-rata fans Juve di Turin malahan menyuport club kecintaan mereka melalui bar-bar atau restoran. Di luar Italia, kebolehan supporter Juventus terlalu kuat. Juve sangat juga digemari banyak orang di Italia Utara serta Pulau Sisilia, serta jadi kebolehan besar waktu Juve berlaga tandang, yang serta bertambah kuat ketimbang beberapa partisan di Turin sendiri.
Untuk wilayah Indonesia sendiri mulai sejak awal musim 2006-07 udah berdiri satu komune teristimewa untuk beberapa pengagum Juventus, dengan nama Juventus Klub Indonesia (JCI). Komune ini lantas disadari untuk hanya satu fans klub sah Juventus untuk Indonesia pada awal musim 2008-09 sehabis hampir 3 tahun bertarung untuk mendapati lisensi dari faksi Juventus di Italia
submitted by bwfslot to u/bwfslot

“About 24 hours after arriving from Moscow, a private jet regularly used by the head [German Gref “co-chair of Putin’s A.I. board”†] of Russia's largest state-run bank remained at an airport just a short drive from where Donald Trump is vacationing.” – Inquisitr (2020)

Inquisitr—Mystery Deepens Over Why Kremlin Bank CEO’s Plane Remains In Florida, 50 Miles From Donald Trump’s Mar-A-Lago
(1/5/2020) “Almost 24 hours after landing at Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport (FLL) in Florida early on Saturday morning, as The Inquisitr reported, a private jet frequently used by the CEO of Russia’s largest state-owned-bank remained on the ground there—about 50 miles south of Mar-a-Lago resort in Palm Beach where Donald Trump is vacationing until Sunday afternoon.
Whether Sberbank CEO German Gref† was aboard the plane when it arrived on a 12-hour, 23-minute nonstop flight from Moscow remains unconfirmed. Russian media has reported that the plane, a Gulfstream G650 operated by Jet Air Group with the tail number RA-10204, is used frequently and perhaps exclusively by Gref.
(UPDATE: According to flight records posted by the site FlightAware, the Sberbank jet departed Fort Lauderdale at 12:23 a.m. EST on Sunday morning, just 21 hours and 34 minutes after it arrived from Moscow—where it landed on the return trip at 6:17 p.m. local time, or 10:17 a.m. EST, a nine-hour, 53 minute flight.)
Flight records posted to Twitter show that the plane made the same nonstop flight from Moscow to Fort Lauderdale last year, on the same dates. On January 4, 2019, the plane landed in Fort Lauderdale at 2:49 a.m., according to the records. In 2020, the plane arrived at the same airport on the same date, landing at 2:31 a.m.
Last year, however, Trump did not spend his holiday break at his Mar-a-Lago Club, remaining in the White House during what was then an ongoing government shutdown. On January 4,Trump was indeed present at Mar-a-Lago but left the estate at 9:55 a.m.—six hours and 24 minutes after the Sberbank jet touched down—to visit Trump International Golf Club in West Palm Beach. He remained at the golf club until 3:12 p.m., according to a public schedule posted by FactBase.
Sberbank has been under United States economic sanctions since 2014, over its involvement in Russia’s annexation of the territory of Crimea from Ukraine. In November 2013, however, Gref himself co-hosted a party honoring Trump in Moscow, during Trump’s visit there for the Miss Universe beauty pageant, according to a report by The Daily Beast. Trump was then the owner of the pageant.
Following Trump’s return to the United States following the 2013 event, he received a mysterious ‘gift’ from Russian President Vladimir Putin. The gift was reportedly ‘a black lacquered box’, but the contents of the box have never been publicly revealed.
Like the contents of the ‘gift’ from Putin to Trump, the purpose of the Sberbank private jet’s trip to Florida from Moscow is also a mystery, even as the plan sits on the tarmac at Fort Lauderdale airport as of 1:30 a.m. EST on Sunday.
According to the online flight records from 2019, the Gulfstream private jet departed from Fort Lauderdale 30 hours and 11 minutes after landing there, making another nonstop flight back to Sheremetyevo Alexander S. Pushkin International Airport (SVO) in Moscow.” http://web.archive.org/web/20200106153745/https://www.inquisitr.com/5821555/kremlin-bank-ceo-jet-florida-donald-trump
†Herman (German) Gref:
[“Sberbank, headed by Herman Gref, the other co-chair of Putin’s A.I. board, is also among the banks providing biometric services that feed into the Digital Profile System.” – Claims Journal (2019)]
•Vedomosti (Russia)—Sberbank Invested in Facial Recognition Technology (11/17/2017) “Sberbank Recognizes a Customer by Sight: The Bank intends to provide biometric access to any of its services.” http://vedomosti.ru/technology/articles/2017/11/17/742077-raspoznavaniya-lits (http://archive.is/sbLOR) [Translated]
•Bloomberg—The Day Trump Came to Moscow: Oligarchs, Miss Universe and Nobu (12/21/2016) “Meeting with top group of Russian financiers, industrialists; They discussed a possible Trump Tower and inspected sites The last time Donald Trump made an appearance in Moscow was November 2013 for the Miss Universe contest he famously owned. It was a glittering event filled with carefully choreographed photographs and parties. Then another, more private, invitation arrived: Come to Nobu to meet more than a dozen of Russia’s top businessmen, including Herman Gref, the chief executive officer of state-controlled Sberbank PJSC, Russia’s biggest bank. Gref, who was President Vladimir Putin’s economy minister from 2000 to 2007, organized the meeting together with Aras Agalarov, the founder of Crocus Group, one of the country’s largest real-estate companies, which was hosting the beauty pageant at one of its concert halls.” http://bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-12-21/the-day-trump-came-to-moscow-oligarchs-miss-universe-and-nobu (http://archive.is/7X1bc)
•NBC News—Putin Rival Ties Kushner Meeting to Kremlin Bankers (10/17/2017) “A prominent exiled Russian oligarch said in an exclusive interview with NBC News that he is nearly certain Russian President Vladimir Putin tried to collaborate with the Trump campaign, and that he believes a top Russian banker was not ‘acting on his own behalf’ when he held a controversial meeting with Jared Kushner last December. The pointed remarks come from a longtime Putin rival, Mikhail Khodorkovsky, an oil executive who was Russia's richest man before he was imprisoned and exiled by the Kremlin. ’I am almost convinced that Putin's people have tried to influence the U.S. election in some way’, Khodorkovsky told MSNBC’s Ari Melber in his first U.S. television interview since Trump took office. [...] His former head of human resources, Sergey Gorkov, now runs a Kremlin bank and met with Kushner in December last year. The U.S. has accused Gorkov's bank of providing cover for Russian spies. Khodorkovsky says Gorkov was a ‘fine employee’ who ‘carries out orders’, suggesting the banker would not have been acting alone in meeting with a senior figure of the incoming Trump administration. ‘I have no doubt that he wouldn’t do anything on his own behalf’, Khodorkovsky said. Khodorkovsky also said he believes Gorkov's orders come from either Andrey Kostin or Herman [German] Gref, who both run Kremlin-backed banks that were sanctioned by the Obama administration.” http://web.archive.org/web/20190706131958/https://www.nbcnews.com/politics/white-house/putin-rival-ties-kushner-meeting-kremlin-bankers-n811631 [“Hermann Gräf, better known as Herman Gref*, is a Russian politician and businessman. He was the Minister of Economics and Trade of Russia from May 2000 to September 2007. He is the CEO and chairman of the executive board of Sberbank, the largest Russian bank.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herman_Gref]
•Fast Company—Russia’s Largest Bank Just Launched a State-Of-The-Art Coding School to Ease Dependence on Western Tech; Sberbank, which is currently under U.S. sanctions and whose CEO [Gref] has ties to Trump, launched School 21 in Moscow last week. (11/30/2018) “The biggest bank in Russia, which has been under U.S. sanctions since 2014, just launched a state-of-the-art coding school in Moscow that aims to train thousands of world-class software engineers in the arts of cybersecurity, gaming, and the latest AI technology for years to come. School 21, which operates under the umbrella of Ecole 42, a global pioneer in IT education backed by French billionaire Xavier Niel, is wholly owned by Sberbank. It is free, open to aspiring coders from 18 to 30 years old, and has 21 levels of proficiency. The school is highly competitive—its inaugural program has a class of 500 students out of more than 85,000 applicants, and the plan is to scale up to 2,500 a year in the long term, according to Business FM radio station. Sberbank told Fast Company that it plans to run two more application cycles next year, one in the winter and one in the spring, and that it might open a second office in St. Petersburg. The school’s launch is raising concerns about Russia training thousands of highly skilled cyber specialists at a time when the United States is expanding its sanctions against Russian entities, including Sberbank-xbacked properties, and amid heightened tensions in Europe last week over a naval skirmish between Russian and Ukraine in the Kerch Strait. It also comes against the backdrop of the Russian government’s disinformation efforts in elections around the globe, which the Kremlin has vehemently denied. In addition, Sberbank has been in the spotlight due to the history of high-level connections between the bank’s leadership, the Russian government and Donald Trump’s associates before he became U.S. president. It was bank chairman Herman Gref who set up Trump’s meeting with Russian businessmen during the Miss Universe pageant in 2013 in Moscow, an event which Sberbank co-sponsored, while Trump was exploring building a Trump Tower in Moscow. Trump’s hotel plans are making headlines again this week due to the plea deal that Trump’s former lawyer Michael Cohen negotiated with the Mueller probe–Cohen admitted that he lied when he previously claimed that the deal fell through in January 2016, now conceding that talks for a Trump Tower in Moscow continued up until June 2016.’ Russia’s largest bank just launched a state-of-the-art coding school to ease dependence on Western tech; Sberbank, which is currently under U.S. sanctions and whose CEO has ties to Trump, launched School 21 in Moscow last week.” http://web.archive.org/web/20181201002817/https://www.fastcompany.com/90274333/russias-largest-bank-just-launched-a-coding-school-to-ease-dependence-on-western-tech
•Claims Journal—Vladimir Putin Wants Everyone to Love the Way He Watches Them (10/22/2019) “Officials in Moscow have spent the last few years methodically assembling one of the most comprehensive video-surveillance operations in the world. The public-private network of as many as 200,000 cameras records 1.5 billion hours of footage a year that can be accessed by 16,000 government employees, intelligence officers and law-enforcement personnel. Now the entire system is about to be equipped with what City Hall is billing as some of the most advanced facial-recognition software outside of China, claiming it will be more accurate and easier to search than London’s older, bigger network. The upgrade will dramatically expand a pilot program that led to the capture of as many as 10 wanted criminals a month either at major public events or inside the city’s warren of 269 metro stations. Moscow’s embrace of the technology, which the West is increasingly curtailing in response to public pressure, is being challenged in courts on political and legal grounds by opponents of President Vladimir Putin. But the monitoring tool is just one of several Russia is deploying, including mandatory recordings of all cellular calls. Many of the initiatives are based on recent advances in artificial intelligence, a science Putin sees as the ticket to global domination for whichever nation masters it first. Putin and lieutenants led by Moscow Mayor Sergei Sobyanin say measures such as geolocating every active in the country, creating ‘digital profiles’ of each adult and collating online complaints against authorities are all necessary to ensure public safety and improve services. They’re betting most voters will accept further privacy curbs like the facial-recognition rollout in exchange for safer streets and greater convenience in their daily lives. ‘We’re conducting experiments in schools, clinics, hospitals and in transport to introduce this technology, which, of course, will facilitate the work of a huge number of people and make these industries more efficient’, Sobyanin told Putin at a meeting on artificial intelligence earlier this year. While so-called authoritarian tech, from automatic people trackers to online censorship bots, has triggered a worldwide debate about the proper balance between governing and surveilling, Moscow has so far made a better case for Big Brother than most cities. Russia’s capital ranks No. 1 among 40 metropolises in the latest UN survey of ‘e-government effectiveness in the delivery of public services’. London, by comparison, is fourth, Shanghai 11th and New York 14th. [...] Sberbank, headed by Herman Gref, the other co-chair of Putin’s A.I. board, is also among the banks providing biometric services that feed into the Digital Profile System. The support of Gref is vital to the success of the program because Sberbank serves as a payment agent for most household bills in addition to safeguarding almost half of the country’s savings. Gref is fond of repeating the mantra ‘big data is the new oil’, but privacy experts say the concentration of so much personal information in a single database will make Russia an ideal target for identity thieves, not unlike Equifax Inc. The U.S. consumer-scorer was breached in 2017, exposing the credit histories of more than 145 million people. (Sberbank itself was the victim of a data leak affecting as many as 60 million clients, Kommersant reported this month. The bank said the incident impacted just 5,000 holders of its credit cards.) Potentially more worrisome in a country routinely accused of harassing the political opposition is that the new database could be a precursor of the kind of ‘social credit’ system China is developing. It’s a name-and-shame way to keep tabs on the behavior of the population by issuing grades, with demerits applied for things like smoking or circulating whatever’s deemed fake news. In 2016, the company launched the FindFace website and application. With the help of it, it was possible to find a person’s profile in VKontakte in a few seconds. The launch of the ‘innovation dating service’, as the company initially positioned it, provoked a series of scandals—users deanonimized not only fellow travelers in the subway, but porn actresses and rally participants, the technology was used even by the Bellingcat investigation team. And then they told about the application in the ‘Wait for me’ program on Channel One, and NtechLab, as Kabakov said, began to receive ‘five offers of cooperation per day’. Now the founders explain that FindFace was just a showcase that helped pitch technology. For example, with help from FindFace German [Herman] Gref† deanonimized his secretary within one second after being introduced to the algorithm, according to someone familiar with the head of Sberbank. But in 2018 both the site and the FindFace application were unexpectedly closed. This had to be done because of possible complaints, including from VKontakte, says one of the interlocutors of The Bell. Spending time and money on the courts did not make sense; the founders of NtechLab already understood that they would not make money on recognizing pretty girls.” http://web.archive.org/web/20191024034256/https://www.claimsjournal.com/news/international/2019/10/22/293704.htm
•The Moscow Times—Russia To Grant Police Access to Bank Customers’ Biometric Data (12/19/2017) “Russia’s police and intelligence services will gain access to bank customers’ biometric data without their consent under new legislation making its way through the State Duma. Russia’s Communications Ministry and the Central Bank are overseeing a pilot project that will use personal biometric data to remotely verify bank account applications by late 2018. The Rostelecom state telecoms provider will operate the project, despite widespread concerns over state surveillance, data storage and privacy rights. A state deputy co-authoring the bill was cited as saying that ‘law enforcement officers will not have unlimited access to the system’ and that data would only be provided after official requests, the Vedomosti business daily reported Tuesday. According to the draft bill, Rostelecom would be required to share bank customers’ biometric data without their consent with Russia’s Interior Ministry and Federal Security Service (FSB). The data collected will include facial images and voice recordings, and may be expanded to iris recognition, palm and fingerprint scanning, according to Rostelecom. ‘If a person is law abiding then they will have no reason to worry’, Elman Mekhtiev, the vice-president of the Russian Association of Banks, was cited as saying by Vedomosti.” http://web.archive.org/web/20191121205917/https://www.themoscowtimes.com/2017/12/19/russia-to-grant-police-access-to-bank-customers-biometric-data-a59987
•The Moscow Times—Moscow Arrests 42 Suspects Using New Facial Recognition Technology in Metro Stations (5/24/2018) “A pilot project implementing facial recognition technology in Moscow has reportedly led to the arrests of 42 suspects in a month. Moscow has ramped up video surveillance ahead of the FIFA World Cup that kicks off in three weeks, including with facial recognition capabilities at metro stations capable of identifying 20 faces per second. Around 50,000 photographs of wanted suspects have been uploaded into the Moscow metro system, the state-owned Sberbank vice president Stanislav Kuznetsov told the state-run RIA Novosti news agency Thursday. ‘As a result, 42 repeat offenders were detained at four metro stations in a month,’ Kuznetsov was quoted as saying. He said Sberbank CEO German Gref plans to discuss expanding the facial-recognition system beyond four metro stations with Moscow Mayor Sergei Sobyanin at the annual economic forum underway in St. Petersburg. Sberbank acquired a stake in the VisionLabs facial recognition company last fall to create a ‘unique biometric identifier’ involving face, voice and retina identification.” http://themoscowtimes.com/news/moscow-arrests-42-suspects-using-new-facial-recognition-technology-in-metro-stations-61567 (http://archive.is/qU8WU)
•The Bell (Russia)—The Russian Elite is Jostling to Solve Putin’s “2024 Problem” (7/20/2019) “This week we look at how a senior official wants President Vladimir Putin stay in power after his current term ends in 2024. We also explain why protests over the exclusion of independent candidates from local elections is a sign of a system under strain, and how Moscow is set to roll-out one of the world’s biggest face recognition systems. The Russian elite is jostling to solve Putin’s ‘2024 problem’ The speaker of Russia’s lower house of parliament, Vyacheslav Volodin, this week publicly offered a solution to Putin’s ‘2024 problem’—what to do about the constitutional limit on two consecutive presidential terms. Volodin, who was previously oversaw domestic politics in the Kremlin, published an article (Rus) in the State Duma’s official magazine laying out his idea for changing the constitution to give parliament more authority. [...] Why the world should care: The Russian elite is increasingly obsessed with the ‘2024 problem’, and jostling within the elite is already well underway. At present, a variation of Volodin’s plan seems the most likely outcome. [...] Protests over Moscow’s local elections highlight cracks in the system: If the Kremlin wants to keep Putin in power beyond 2024, it will have to improve the functioning of its political management machine. Anger this week over local elections in the capital revealed how the system is faltering: the authorities’ ineptitude turned the vote—in which no one was interested—into a trigger for repeated demonstrations† in downtown Moscow. [...] Why the world should care: The Kremlin’s political management machine is coping less well with each passing election, and their failure in Moscow significant—in a crisis, the country’s fate will be decided in the capital. This is a bad sign ahead of the 2021 Duma elections, and a blow to Moscow Mayor Sergei Sobyanin, whose name appears in discussions of presidential candidates in 2024. Moscow is set to install a state-of-the-art face recognition system: While paranoid internet users across the world call for a boycott of FaceApp, the Russian app that generates an image of an elderly you, Moscow City Hall is building the world’s largest face recognition system. Sberbank, Russia’s largest bank, will take part in development and has already collected the biometrical data of tens of millions of Russians. - Moscow City Hall announced a tender this year for 105,000 video cameras with face recognition software. As of now, only 1,500 have been installed, but the police have already used them to identify and arrest about 100 criminals. According to The Bell’s calculations, the new system will cost no less than $50 million, a price tag that the city can easily afford. - There are three main bidders: Ntechlab, which was founded by people close to the Presidential Administration and two companies in which Sberbank is a shareholder: Speech Technology Center and VisionLabs. - Market sources say that Moscow’s face recognition system, once rolled out, will only be comparable in size with systems already in place in China. - Sberbank looks well placed to provide the raw data to make the system work. Since last year, the bank has been collecting biometric data from its clients (93 million people), and in December, CEO German [Herman] Gref said they already have data from ‘millions of people’. Why the World Should Care: Concentrating resources could mean Russia becomes the world’s number two player in face recognition systems. Remember this when you visit Moscow, walk the city’s streets and see the mounted cameras on every building.” http://web.archive.org/web/20190801101206/http://thebell.io/en/the-russian-elite-is-jostling-to-solve-putin-s-2024-problem
[“A more advanced operation could use the full suite of services utilized by companies to track political attitudes on social media across all congressional districts, analyze who is most likely to vote and where, and then launch, almost instantly, a customized campaign at a highly localized level to discourage voting in the most vulnerable districts. Such a campaign, due to its highly personalized structure, would likely have significant impact on voting behavior.” – Brookings Institution (2008)]
•Brookings Institution—Weapons of the Weak: Russia and AI-driven Asymmetric Warfare (2018) “‘Artificial intelligence is the future, not only for Russia, but for all humankind. It comes with colossal opportunities, but also threats that are difficult to predict. Whoever becomes the leader in this sphere will become the ruler of the world.’ – Russian President Vladimir Putin, 2017 Speaking to Russian students on the first day of the school year in September 2017, Putin squarely positioned Russia in the technological arms race for artificial intelligence (AI). Putin’s comment signaled that, like China and the United States, Russia sees itself engaged in direct geopolitical competition with the world’s great powers, and AI is the currency that Russia is betting on. [...] Currently, Moscow is pursuing investments in at least two directions: select conventional military and defense technologies where the Kremlin believes it can still hold comparative advantage over the West and high-impact, low-cost asymmetric warfare to correct the imbalance between Russia and the West in the conventional domain. The former—Russia’s development and use of AI-driven military technologies and weapons—has received significant attention. AI has the potential to hyperpower Russia’s use of disinformation... And unlike in the conventional military space, the United States and Europe are ill-equipped to respond to AI-driven asymmetric warfare in the information space. The latter—the implications of AI for asymmetric political warfare—remains unexplored. Yet, such nonconventional tools—cyber-attacks, disinformation campaigns, political influence, and illicit finance—have become a central tenet of Russia’s strategy toward the West and one with which Russia has been able to project power and influence beyond its immediate neighborhood. In particular, AI has the potential to hyperpower Russia’s use of disinformation—the intentional spread of false and misleading information for the purpose of influencing politics and societies. And unlike in the conventional military space, the United States and Europe are ill-equipped to respond to AI-driven asymmetric warfare (ADAW) in the information space. Russian Information Warfare at Home and Abroad: Putin came to power in 2000, and since then, information control and manipulation has become a key element of the Kremlin’s domestic and foreign policy. At home, this has meant repression of independent media and civil society, state control of traditional and digital media, and deepening government surveillance. For example, Russia’s surveillance system, SORM (System of Operative-Search Measures) allows the FSB (Federal Security Service) and other government agencies to monitor and remotely access ISP servers and communications without the ISPs’ knowledge. In 2016, a new package of laws, the so-called Yarovaya amendments, required telecom providers, social media platforms, and messaging services to store user data for three years and allow the FSB access to users’ metadata and encrypted communications. While there is little known information on how Russian intelligence agencies are using these data, their very collection suggests that the Kremlin is experimenting with AI-driven analysis to identify potential political dissenters. The government is also experimenting with facial recognition technologies in conjunction with CCTV. Moscow alone has approximately 170,000 cameras, at least 5,000 of which have been outfitted with facial expression recognition technology from NTechLabs. Still, Moscow’s capacity to control and surveil the digital domain at home remains limited, as exemplified by the battle between the messaging app Telegram and the Russian government in early 2018. Telegram, one of the few homegrown Russian tech companies, refused to hand over its encryption keys to the FSB in early 2018. What followed was a haphazard government attempt to ban Telegram by blocking tens of millions of IP addresses, which led to massive disruptions in unrelated services, such as cloud providers, online games, and mobile banking apps. Unlike Beijing, which has effectively sought to censor and control the internet as new technologies have developed, Moscow has not been able to implement similar controls preemptively. The result is that even a relatively small company like Telegram is able to outmaneuver and embarrass the Russian state. Despite such setbacks, however, Moscow seems set to continue on a path toward ‘digital authoritarianism’—using its increasingly unfettered access to citizens’ personal data to build better microtargeting capabilities that enhance social control, censor behavior and speech, and curtail counter-regime activities. Under Putin, Cold War-era ‘active measures’—overt or covert influence operations aimed at influencing public opinion and politics abroad—have been revived and adapted to the digital age. Externally, Russian information warfare (informatsionaya voyna) has become part and parcel of Russian strategic thinking in foreign policy. Moscow has long seen the West as involved in an information war against it—a notion enshrined in Russia’s 2015 national security strategy, which sees the United States and its allies as seeking to contain Russia by exerting ‘informational pressure…’ in an ‘intensifying confrontation in the global information arena.’ Under Putin, Cold War-era ‘active measures’—overt or covert influence operations aimed at influencing public opinion and politics abroad—have been revived and adapted to the digital age. Information warfare (or information manipulation) has emerged as a core component of a broader influence strategy. At the same time, the line between conventional (or traditional) and nonconventional (or asymmetric) warfare has blurred in Russian military thinking. ‘The erosion of the distinction between war and peace, and the emergence of a grey zone’ has been one of the most striking developments in the Russian approach to warfare, according to Chatham House’s Keir Giles. Warfare, from this perspective, exists on a spectrum in which ‘political, economic, informational, humanitarian, and other nonmilitary measures’ are used to lay the groundwork for last resort military operations. The importance of information warfare on the spectrum of war has increased considerably in 21st century warfare, according to contemporary Russian military thought. Maskirovka, the Soviet/Russian term for the art of deception and concealment in both military and nonmilitary operations, is a key concept that figures prominently into Russian strategic thinking. The theory is broader than the narrow definition of military deception. In the conventional military domain, it includes the deployment of decoys, camouflage, and misleading information to deceive the enemy on the battlefield. The use of ‘little green men,’ or unmarked soldiers and mercenaries, in Russia’s annexation of Crimea in 2014 is one example of maskirovka in military practice. So is the use of fake weapons and heavy machinery: one Russian company is producing an army of inflatable missiles, tanks, and jets that appear real in satellite imagery. Maskirovka, as a theory and operational practice, also applies to nonmilitary asymmetric operations. Modern Russian disinformation and cyber attacks against the West rely on obfuscation and deception in line with the guiding principles of maskirovka. During the 2016 U.S. Presidential elections, for example, Russian citizens working in a troll factory in St. Petersburg, known as the Internet Research Agency (IRA), set up fake social media accounts pretending to be real Americans. These personas then spread conspiracy theories, disinformation, and divisive content meant to amplify societal polarization by pitting opposing groups against each other. The IRA troll factory itself, while operating with the knowledge and support of the Kremlin and the Russian intelligence services, was founded and managed by proxy: a Russian oligarch known as ‘Putin’s chef,’ Yevgeny Prigozhin. Concord, a catering company controlled by Prigozhin, was the main funder and manager of the IRA, and it went to great lengths to conceal the company’s involvement, including the setting up a web of fourteen bank accounts to transfer funding to the IRA. Such obfuscation tactics were designed to conceal the true source and goals of the influence operations in the United Stated while allowing the Kremlin to retain plausible deniability if the operations were uncovered—nonconventional maskirovka in practice. On the whole, Russia’s limited financial resources, the shift in strategic thinking toward information warfare, and the continued prevalence of maskirovka as a guiding principle of engagement, strongly suggest that in the near term, Moscow will ramp up the development of AI-enabled information warfare. Russia will not be the driver or innovator of these new technologies due its financial and human capital constraints. But, as it has already done in its attacks against the West, it will continue to co-opt existing commercially available technologies to serve as weapons of asymmetric warfare. AI-driven Asymmetric Warfare: The Kremlin’s greatest innovation in its information operations against the West has not been technical. Rather, Moscow’s savviness has been to recognize that: (1) ready-made commercial tools and digital platforms can be easily weaponized; and (2) digital information warfare is cost-effective and high-impact, making it the perfect weapon of a technologically and economically weak power. AI-driven asymmetric warfare (ADAW) capabilities could provide Russia with additional comparative advantage. Digital information warfare is cost-effective and high-impact, making it the perfect weapon of a technologically and economically weak power. U.S. government and independent investigations into Russia’s influence campaign against the United States during the 2016 elections reveal the low cost of that effort. Based on publicly available information, we know that the Russian effort included: the purchase of ads on Facebook (estimated cost $100,000)27 and Google (approximate cost $4,700), set up of approximately 36,000 automated bot accounts on Twitter, operation of the IRA troll farm (estimated cost $240,000 over the course of two years), an intelligence gathering trip carried out by two Russian agents posing as tourists in 2014 (estimated cost $50,000), production of misleading or divisive content (pictures, memes, etc.), plus additional costs related to the cyber attacks on the Democratic National Committee and the Clinton campaign. In sum, the total known cost of the most high-profile influence operation against the United States is likely around one million dollars. The relatively low level of investment produced high returns. On Facebook alone, Russian linked content from the IRA reached 125 million Americans. This is because the Russian strategy relied on ready-made tools designed for commercial online marketing and advertising: the Kremlin simply used the same online advertising tools that companies would use to sell and promote its products and adapted them to spread disinformation. Since the U.S. operation, these tools and others have evolved and present new opportunities for far more damaging but increasingly low-cost and difficult-to-attribute ADAW operations. Three threat vectors in particular require immediate attention. First, advances in deep learning are making synthetic media content quick, cheap, and easy to produce. AI-enabled audio and video manipulation, so-called ‘deep fakes,’ is already available through easy-to-use apps such as Face2Face, which allows for one person’s expressions to be mapped onto another face in a target video. Video to Video Synthesis can synthesize realistic video based a baseline of inputs. Other tools can synthesize realistic photographs of AI-rendered faces, reproduce videos and audio of any world leader, and synthesize street scenes to appear in a different season. Using these tools, China recently unveiled an AI made news anchor. As the barriers of entry for accessing such tools continue to decrease, their appeal to low-resource actors will increase. Whereas most Russian disinformation content has been static (e.g., false news stories, memes, graphically designed ads), advances in learning AI will turn disinformation dynamic (e.g. video, audio). Because audio and video can easily be shared on smart phones and do not require literacy, dynamic disinformation content will be able to reach a broader audience in more countries. For example, in India, false videos shared through Whatsapp incited riots and murders. Unlike Facebook or Twitter, Whatsapp (owned by Facebook) is an end-to-end encrypted messaging platform, which means that content shared via the platform is basically unmonitored and untraceable. The ‘democratization of disinformation’ will make it difficult for governments to counter AI-driven disinformation. Advances in machine learning are producing algorithms that ‘continuously learn how to more effectively replicate the appearance of reality,’ which means that ‘deep fakes cannot easily be detected by other algorithms.’ Russia, China, and others could harness these new publicly available technologies to undermine Western soft power or public diplomacy efforts around the world. Debunking or attributing such content will require far more resources than the cost of production, and it will be difficult if not impossible to do so in real time. Second, advances in affective computing and natural language processing will make it easier to manipulate human emotions and extract sensitive information without ever hacking an email account. In 2017, Chinese researchers created an ‘emotional chatting machine’ based on data users shared on Weibo, the Chinese social media site. As AI gains access to more personal data, it will become increasingly customized and personalized to appeal to and manipulate specific users. Coupled with advances in natural learning processing, such as voice recognition, this means that affective systems will be able to mimic, respond to, and predict human emotions expressed through text, voice, or facial expressions. Some evidence suggests that humans are quite willing to form personal relationships, share deeply personal information, and interact for long periods of time with AI designed to form relationships. These systems could be used to gather information from high value targets—such as intelligence officers or political figures—by exploiting their vices and patterns of behavior. Advances in affective computing and natural language processing will make it easier to manipulate human emotions and extract sensitive information without ever hacking an email account. Third, deep fakes and emotionally manipulative content will be able to reach the intended audience with a high degree of precision due to advances in content distribution networks. ‘Precision propaganda’ is the set of interconnected tools that comprise an ‘ecosystem of services that enable highly targeted political communications that reach millions of people with customized messages.’ The full scope of this ecosystem, which includes data collection, advertising platforms, and search engine optimization, aims to parse out audiences in granular detail and identify new receptive audiences will be ‘supercharged’ by advances in AI. The content that users see online is the end product of an underlying multi-billion dollar industry that involves thousands of companies that work together to assess individuals’ preferences, attitudes, and tastes to ensure maximum efficiency, profitability, and real-time responsiveness of content delivery. Russian operations (as far as we know), relied on the most basic of these tools. But, as Ghosh and Scott suggest, a more advanced operation could use the full suite of services utilized by companies to track political attitudes on social media across all congressional districts, analyze who is most likely to vote and where, and then launch, almost instantly, a customized campaign at a highly localized level to discourage voting in the most vulnerable districts. Such a campaign, due to its highly personalized structure, would likely have significant impact on voting behavior. Once the precision of this distribution ecosystem is paired with emotionally manipulative deep fake content delivered by online entities that appear to be human, the line between fact and fiction will cease to exist. And Hannah Arendt’s prediction of a world in which there is no truth and no trust may still come to pass.“ http://www.brookings.edu/research/weapons-of-the-weak-russia-and-ai-driven-asymmetric-warfare (http://archive.is/mMlyN)
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