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Oct/17/2020 wrap-up: \\ War in Artsakh Republic (Karabakh) \\ Azerbaijan has so far targeted civilians in 130 cities & villages; videos \\ growing calls for Artsakh's international recognition \\ the battlefield \\ international response \\ ceasefire agreement \\ humanitarian aid & demonstrations

Prior events: October 16, October 15, October 14, October 13, October 12, October 11 , October 10, October 9 , October 8 , October 7, October 6, October 5, October 4, October 3, October 2, October 1, September 30, September 29, September 28, September 27.

another collection of prior reports about jihadists recruited by Azerbaijan

Thread: https://twitter.com/razminfo/status/1317493312006344707

October 17th events

23:25 govt: some residents outside of Armenia's southern city Kapan received an SMS about an air alert by mistake.
Hours earlier, Azeris had bombed Artsakh capital Stepanakert and settlement Shosh, killing one civilian and injuring three.
Shosh image: https://twitter.com/MFAofArmenia/status/1317225426918510597
00:44 army: Azeri drones were spotted inside the Republic of Armenia territory. Appropriate measures are being taken.
1:29 Republic of Armenia MFA: we deny Azerbaijan's accusations that we opened fire at Azerbaijani lands.
1:37 Republic of Armenia MoD: we shot down two Azeri drones within the Armenian territory. The drones intruded near southern Qnatsakh, Artsavik, and Davit Bek settlements and conducted a strike against Armenian equipment and civilian infrastructure. No one was injured.
We condemn Azerbaijan's relentless attempts to expand the geography of the conflict and thus deal an irreversible blow to the entire regional security. Any encroachment on the territorial integrity of the Republic of Armenia will receive an adequate response.
1:39: Azerbaijan reports that several heavy missiles hit its second-largest city Ganja, destroying several structures. Azerbaijani media outlets began circulating a photo from the 2016 Syrian conflict showing a baby being removed from the rubble to present it as an aftermath of a strike on Ganja.
00:44: Armenia has accepted Russia's offer to send a military envoy to Moscow to meet Azeri counterparts to discuss the implementation of the ceasefire, however, Azeris refused to send an envoy for negotiations.
2:25: more volunteers are preparing to join the front lines.
2:27: Azerbaijan is caught fabricating an Armenian attack again. Azeri officials shared a video of Armenian GRAD missiles allegedly "being launched at Ganja city". The problem is, GRAD missiles cannot reach Ganja city 40km away.
2:47: the United Nations Security Council will hold a closed-door meeting on Monday over the Artsakh conflict.
https://ria.ru/20201017/karabakh-1580222618.html , https://factor.am/296451.html
819 names of deceased Azeri soldiers have been identified by activists by checking social media and non-official sources because the govt of Azerbaijan keeps the casualties secret. Azerbaijan has sustained 5,900 losses in total.
4:30: the civilian infrastructure of Stepanakert was bombed by Azerbaijan again.
Morocco de-facto joins Saudi Arabia and UAE in the boycott of Turkish products. They did so by implementing a 90% tax on Turkish imports, which normally accounts for $2.24b/year. There is a growing tension between Turkey and Arab countries in Northern Africa and the Middle East.
7:46 capital Stepanakert and Shushi were bombed with large-caliber missiles early in the morning. Two civilians were injured.
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1031853.html , https://t.me/infocomm/23542
8:20 army spokesman Artsrun: there is no alternative to victory in this fight for survival, but victory will not come easy. It's hard and requires effort from everyone. Every minute, we must all ask what we have done for victory. Dear brothers, by painting the flag on a car and driving with loud horns in Yerevan, you're not contributing to the victory.
My female students are currently forming a detachment unit. That is a direct contribution to victory. Nari Syuni is taking concrete steps towards victory. Yesterday, a beautiful weeping girl was begged me to send her on a "suicide mission". Be worthy of that young woman. Stand up and make a step.
18-25-year-old soldiers have spent the past 20 days ignoring death. Let's be worthy of them.
10:47: I keep receiving letters from girls wanting to join the army after this morning's message. They are the guarantor of our existence. That's not surprising because there is no difference between a male and a female lion.
8:37 army: no major events on the battlefield last night. The Azeri artillery fire at Artsakh's cities was suppressed with the use of appropriate measures.
10:19: several videos documenting the destruction to civilian infrastructure in Stepanakert, Karmir Shuka, and other Artsakh civilian settlements by the Azeri bombardment.
10:55 an interview with Daniel Decker, the American singer and a friend of Armenia, who is most famous for his "Adana" performance. "I want to return to Artsakh and walk on Shushi streets."
11:11 Ganja's military infrastructure: it's no secret that Azerbaijan places military objects within its cities. A video was recorded two weeks earlier showing a missile unit operating from within an Azeri village.
City Ganja is no exception. Artsakh govt has published the list of military objects that they've been targeting in Ganja.
A military airbase, helicopter squadron (MTV of the General Staff Motorized Rifle Brigade of the Armed Forces), a special forces brigade, an oil and lubricant storage facility run by the military, a machine-building plant run by the Ministry of Defense, an aviation repair facility, artillery repair facility.
Here are the locations of these military objects on a map: https://t.me/reartsakh/5059
11:22 Le Figaro article: Turkish imperialism violates the rights of the Armenian people. Throughout history, the world has turned a blind eye to the atrocities committed by Turkey.
11:41: Russian ruling-party MP Milonov visited Stepanakert yesterday and expressed solidarity with Artsakh, after which he was placed on Azerbaijan's travel blacklist.
Milonov responded:. if Azerbaijan is the country that, as I've witnessed myself, bombs Artsakh civilians, if that's the country that sends Turkish drones to kill women and children, then I'd rather be on their blacklist and not visit that country.
Azerbaijan should come to its senses. A civilized country should not behave that way. Even if terrorists and Erdogan sit on his left shoulder and whisper things, Ilham Aliyev should not allow his name to be added to history's blacklist.
12:08: Edgar Markosyan shot 10 Azeri tanks and received a medal. On one occasion he stopped a column of 7 tanks by shooting the first one, while the rest were picked up by his fellows. "When you first shoot a tank, you don't know what sound will come out. It was loud. The tower blew up 200 meters in the air. That's when I knew we're going to win. It's teamwork."
He's currently recovering from an injury in hospital, where he gave an interview:
12:21: Erdogan called Canadian PM Justin to complain about the suspension of the delivery of military technology to Turkey.
12:33 Q&A with ex-president Kocharyan's aide: Is Kocharyan still in Artsakh? He returned to Yerevan yesterday. Any particular reason? There is a lot of work to do against the Azeri-Turkish aggression. All efforts must be applied. Can you give details? No details, but hopefully the results will be visible in the coming days. There were some anti-Kocharyan campaigns on social media recently. It's coordinated by Azeri social media.
12:34: Russian-Armenian producer Sarik Andreasyan, who recently made the movie Earthquake about the 1988 Spitak quake, plans to produce a film about Artsakh.
"I will definitely make a film about it. Terrorists' actions must be documented in the cinema so that they can not remove that stain from themselves."
12:40: if elected president,. Joe Biden has promised to recognize the Armenian Genocide, more actively participate in the Karabakh conflict to achieve lasting peace, will take steps to monitor the ceasefire, will try to prevent Turkey or jihadists from intervening in the conflict, will make sure the military aid to Azerbaijan cannot be used to attack Armenia, etc.
12:44: Armenian MoD denied the Azeri claim of shooting an Armenian Su-25 jet.
12:51: Iranian govt outlet IRNA says two drones and an aircraft were shot [unclear by whom] near its border with Artsakh-Azerbaijan. They're identifying the owner.
(Hint: Artsakh doesn't fly jets and drones)
13:00 army: Azerbaijan's most recent losses are 1 aircraft, 5 drones, 2 armored vehicles, 150 soldiers.
Their total losses are 6109 soldiers, 4 TOS, 554 tanks and vehicles, 22 aircrafts, 16 helicopters, 186 drones.
13:11 National Security Services: lately, the president of Azerbaijan has been spreading lies about Armenia importing weapons via civilian flights. At the same time, there is evidence that Azerbaijan is importing international terrorists into its country. There are Il-76 and Boeing-747 jets that were spotted transporting terrorists and weapons from Afghanistan. Flights are also scheduled for October 19 and beyond.
13:23: Beeline ISP has donated $200,000 to www.HimnaDram.org in addition to providing temporary free phone package to Artsakh refugees.
13:26: ex-president Serj Sargsyan contacted the president of Europe's largest EPP party Donald Tusk. EPP and Serj's HHK have close ties. Sargsyan asked Tusk to urge his fellow European colleagues to be more active and to take steps towards establishing peace.
13:39: QP MP Lusine Badalyan has joined the army. She will treat the wounded soldiers.
14:10: several soldiers received medals. Two Lt. Colonels organized proper defense and won battles.
Seven privates and sergeants neutralized an Azeri attack, including the Colonel who was leading the attack, and captured the latter's valuable documents and radio equipment.
Volunteer Alexander Harutyunyan received the title of Artsakh Hero posthumously.
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1031883.html , https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1031885.html , https://t.me/infoteka24/9168
14:14: some people are starting to worry about the Baku-Ceyhan oil and gas pipelines.
El País article: The British Petroleum, which operates the pipeline, is taking steps to secure it after Azerbaijan accused Armenia of attempting to target the pipeline.
The future of the Caucasus energy corridor, however, is not as clear. Europe has an aggressive 2050 climate-change policy. Just recently, they also approved another measure aimed at 2030, which will cut carbon emissions by ~60%.
This leaves fewer opportunities to create infrastructure for the import of fossil fuels.
The new Nord Stream 2 pipeline, the TurkStream, the proposed eastern Mediterranean pipeline to extract gas from Israeli and Egyptian waters, the Algerian two pipes that are already operating at reduced capacity, plus the American liquid gas at record-low prices, have all flooded Europe with energy opportunities.
Everything points to the reduction of the Southern Gas Corridor's (Azeri-Turkey) importance, although Turkey, Israel, and Italy could be affected if this war damages it.
14:22: the president of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev complained that Armenia is armed to its teeth despite having a small budget. "We know their budget. Where do the weapons come from?"
He then accused Russian-Armenian businessmen of sending weapons to Armenia. One of them, Tashir's owner Samvel Karapetyan, replied to Aliyev saying "our donations go towards building the schools and hospitals which your army is bombing today."
https://t.me/infocomm/23561 , https://news.am/arm/news/608446.html
14:25: Bruntsk NGO has organized a humanitarian aid collection for Artsakh residents.
Video: https://www.facebook.com/100000768523525/videos/3442694832432767/
15:02 WarGonzo military reporter: our sources in Artsakh say that Azerbaijan planned to use the modified AN-2 aircrafts-turned-drones as baits to locate and destroy Armenian air defense systems. The plan largely failed because these slow drones are easily downed with other cheaper methods like MANPADs.
15:14: the Council of French Ôvèrgne-Rôno-Âlpes has donated 100,000 Euros to Artsakh as humanitarian aid. Artsakh MFA expressed gratitude.
https://t.me/infocomm/23568 , https://news.am/arm/news/608430.html
15:15: Los Angeles Sheriff Villanueva has welcomed the peaceful Armenian demonstrators and condemned the aggression against Artsakh.
15:16: video of the Armenian demonstrators in San Francisco Golden Gate bridge area. "We were expecting 1,000 but 4,000 showed up."
Demonstrations were held in Prague:
15:35: Armenians held a demonstration in Geneva while chanting "Aliyev jihadist" and demanding official recognition of the Artsakh Republic. They marched towards the UN Human Rights office.
15:51: two Armenian POWs were captured by Azeris. Not to be confused with those who were executed on video earlier. The POWs are currently in an Azeri hospital. The European Court for Human Rights is handling their case.
15:54: a photo is published showing the location and the type of Turkish soldiers deployed in Azerbaijan. The details were released by the Russian outlet Kommersant yesterday.
Photo: https://t.me/reartsakh/5064
16:02: Armenians held a demonstration in front of BBC news headquarters in London and demanded a fair coverage of the Turkish-Azeri aggression against Artsakh. The outlet is accused of being biased and "promoting Azeri lies."
BBC crew was sent to Armenia's Vardenis region. They interviewed a local and recorded the damage done to civilian infrastructure.
Video: https://t.me/infoteka24/9166
16:08 Artsakh govt: this morning's bombing of capital Stepanakert was with the use of 9 heavy missiles that targeted shops and houses.
Photos: https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1031895.html
16:17: an expert talks about the legal ground for Artsakh's independence, the principle of "remedial secession" if a host country oppresses a minority on ethnic grounds, etc.
16:32: in other news. German Foreign Minister Hayko has canceled his trip to Turkey over the hostile activities by Turkey in the eastern Mediterranean.
16:44: Armenian and Israeli demonstrators organized a car caravan in Israel in support of Artsakh. A group of Azeris noticed/knew of the demonstration and attacked one of the cars and its passengers.
16:51: Armenians and other nationalities joined in Chechia and held a protest to condemn the aggression. They called for the official recognition of Artsakh.
17:01: music, speeches, and flags. Armenians held a demonstration in Brussels.
17:42 Senor Hasratyan: the Azeri-Turkish army's long-range artillery warfare tactics are starting to have the boomerang effect. By choosing this style of warfare, Turkey has placed Azerbaijan in a difficult position, in which the recipient of return fire is not Turkey but Azerbaijan.
18:11 Armenia MoD: we shot 3 more Azeri drones in the Republic of Armenia around 4 pm. Another one was shot in Artsakh.
18:16: Artsakh war veteran and Sasna Street leader Jirayr Sefilian will also join the front lines. He received permission from the authorities. The group began recurring volunteers.
18:32 Edgar Elbakyan: Azerbaijan accused Armenia of shelling civilians in Arazbar. A satellite photo clearly shows how close the Azeri army placed their artillery positions to the village, thus endangering the civilian population.
Photo: https://t.me/reartsakh/5070
19:17 Artsakh president Arayik: the heavy battles continue across almost the entire line of contact. South was the heaviest. The defense army is carrying out its mission brilliantly, inflicting heavy damage on enemy troops and equipment.
19:19 Armenian MFA: the international community should move from words to action and use the available tools to stop the aggression against Artsakh residents. The most effective way to restore peace in the region is to recognize the independence of Artsakh.
19:45: ARF party held a meeting with first president Levon Ter-Petrosyan. 13 parties had earlier signed a letter urging the government to invite all previous presidents to create an advisory group.
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1031913.html , https://news.am/arm/news/608426.html
19:48: soldiers send photos from the front lines:
19:53 Artsakh Ombudsman: Since September 27th, Azerbaijan's indiscriminate bombing of 130 civilian settlements have left 36 dead, 150 injured, 7800 damaged buildings and civilian infrastructure objects.
https://news.am/arm/news/608480.html , https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1031918.html , https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1031920.html
19:56: the French city of Limone has officially recognized the independence of the Artsakh Republic. 👍
20:47: Azerbaijan published a drone video showing the alleged bombing of "military storage". It turned out to be s civilian hospital that they illegally bombed earlier.
Armenian MoD shared Azerbaijan's own video as evidence of a war crime.
21:37: Yezidi-Armenian MP Rustam Bakoyan thanked his compatriots for volunteering to join the army. "The spirits are high. Yezidis must be prepared to fight for their right to exist. There are no 'Yezidis' and 'Armenians' in war."
21:4: Russian MFA Lavrov spoke with MFAs of AM and AZ.
21:48: actor Vardan Petrosyan will perform his "Verelk" in Yerevan and Gyumri on October 23-24. It's dedicated to the army. "As Hovhannes Baghramyan said, having a strong rear is half of the victory."
22:00 army spokesman briefing: the opponent resumed the attacks in the same directions early in the morning. Northern battles weren't as fierce as in the past few days.
The battles were heavy in the south. They launched a widespread attack. In one location they brought 20-30 vehicles in an attempt to develop an attack but our artillery's precision strikes struck them and made them retreat.
There were other battles in the south, some of which are still happening.
As we've seen lately, Azeris don't use a large number of armored vehicles anymore (probably because they lost >500). They use airforce, drones, and artillery.
I've met men and women who hid their real age and certain health issues in an attempt to join the front lines. Some of them had never served in the army for various reasons. Lately, they've been visiting military commissariats to voluntarily draft. After receiving a rejection they always write to me and ask how they can join. This is why we're going to win.
Q: have you considered asking the CSTO military bloc for assistance with air defense?
A: I won't answer the political part, but currently we find solutions to air defense issues ourselves. We are going to handle this ourselves. We could receive aid, but no one is going to fight for us.
Q: how can non-citizens volunteer in the army?
A: the law prohibits the recruitment of non-citizens. Write a letter to the government for more details.
22:20: Ayatollah Ali Sistani has issued a fatwa to prohibit the Shia world from purchasing products from Israeli sellers. Azerbaijan has a Shia population, while its leadership buys Israeli weapons, about which the Iranian news outlets have been critical about.
22:23 MFA: Armenia and Azerbaijan have agreed on a humanitarian ceasefire at 00:00 on October 18th.
22:39: one more 2015 Syrian conflict photo is being circulated by Azeri media claiming to be from Ganja.

COVID stats

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top taxpayers

IRS published the names of the top-1000 largest taxpayers in the January-September period.
Grand Tobacco, Gazprom-Armenia, Zangezur copper mine, GeoProMining, CPS Oil, etc.
They paid AMD 721b this year. Last year it was 765b after a 13% growth.
https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1031902.html , https://m.armeniasputnik.am/economy/20191104/20975877/Vorqanov-e-avelacel-HH-xoshor-harkatuneri-vcharac-harkery-Pashinyany-nor-tver-e-hraparakel.html?mobile_return=no
Humanitarian donations for Artsakh: www.HimnaDram.org
Tax-deductible donations from the U.S.: www.ArmeniaFund.org
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submitted by ar_david_hh to armenia

Guns, the medical profession, and bad history Part 1: US gun culture saved Europe in the World Wars and Cold War

Part 2 here
I found out about Doctors for Responsible Gun Ownership when I first encountered the following article:
The US ‘Gun Culture’ That Saved Europe does not occur in a vacuum
(by the way, check the comments to get a real laugh)
Anyway, the writer is none other than Miguel Faria, a doctor and gun rights advocate who believes that Europe owes it's salvation in the World Wars to...American gun culture? I dug rather deep, finding out that Faria and his ilk at DRGO mangled the history of firearms in the US, the World Wars, US crime, the Wild West, and other issues so badly, that I had to mention it.
Offending links:
Faria claims that the weak, spineless Europeans, with no gun culture, allowed the Germans to overwhelm them in two world wars, yet the brave US saved their miserable, gun-hating asses twice. This is as you can tell, is utter horseshit, as it simply babbles on without any concrete evidence (save, of course, for a brief mention of Sgt. Alvin York as an example). Outside of this one anecdote (which, to Faria's credit, is certainly inspirational but not a definitive illustration of US military skill) there is no concrete evidence. Furthermore, it ignores important factors such as troop numbers, military tactics, resources, geography, and industry in favor of a nonsensical narrative. Furthermore, Faria continues to push the "guns would have stopped the Nazis" cliche.
Of course, this is far from the only badhistory I found. As it turns out, Faria and his friends at DRGO also believe that easy gun laws stop all sorts of crime and other nonsensical tropes about guns, which I'll get to in part two.
So let's start at part one: how the World Wars were stopped by gun culture. Faria does little to help his case with WWI by mentioning the case of Alvin York and using next to nothing else as evidence. The fact that the Germans where outnumbered, with 13 million troops against a total of 15 million from the Allied Powers, escapes him. As does the blockade that starved the entirety of Germany, as well as the fact that many German sailors were carrying out mutinies and that the country fell into unrest. Or even the fact that the Central Powers were falling apart one-by -one, or that Germany had just finished removing the Russians (themselves a major foe) from the war when America arrived. He even glosses over the many Allied victories, such as the 2nd Marne and 100 Days Offensive, stating that
Many Americans in the 21st century still cling to their guns and their Bibles, and it stands to reason that the alleged “gun culture” mentality and patriotic outlook may not be gained solely by an 8-week army basic training boot camp. Life experience, patriotism and the attitude to fight along your fellow soldiers in a just cause—such as freedom and a country’s way of life—do not appear in a vacuum.
Um... ok. What evidence do you have for this? And furthermore, if having high gun ownership makes you good at winning wars, then why did the US suffer a draw in Korea? Or lose Vietnam? Or fall into quagmires like Iraq and Afghanistan? Overall Faria chooses a completely unexplained factor as the reason for US victory, one which not one historian will take seriously. Is he forgetting the ferocity with which the other Allied Powers fought before the Americans arrived? The multiple fights at Ypres, Verdun, Vimy Ridge, the First Marne, Cambrai, are all those so forgettable?
WWI was won for a number of reasons. Woodrow Wilson's overtures to the German government, combined with more pacifistic leaders rising to power as the German military broke apart, and unrest at home all lead to Germany's surrender. Germany's Ottoman allies were being pummeled by British and Arabic forces. The Austro-Hungarians were on their knees, and the Bulgarians had quit the war. American forces would not be present in full until Spring 1918, when the German Spring Offensive, largely held back by the same Europeans Faria dismisses, held the Germans back long enough for the Americans to turn the tide. Germans forces overexerted themselves just as American reinforcements, fresh, ready for combat, and larger in numbers, began to arrive in Europe.
Faria then proceeds to brag about how the "pusillanimous Europeans" did nothing as Nazi Germany goose-stepped all over them. In Poland, Hitler triumphed due to the Poles simply being unprepared to deal with the twin Nazi and Soviet assaults. No declaration of war, combined with new tactics enabled the Germans to overrun the Poles in their Blitzkrieg. Norway fell due to the Allies having to abandon it to protect France. German forces conquered France by maneuvering past the Maginot Line and driving the British out at Dunkirk. The French Army, meanwhile, suffered from poor leadership and failed to repel the German Army, which had the element of surprise, along with speed, on their side. Finally, Greece fell due to an army that was too small, not prepared enough, and had inadequate support from it's neighbors and the British/Commonwealth forces, as documented by George E. Blau in his book The German Campaign in the Balkans.
As for the spineless Europeans that are constantly scorned, Faria forgets that in every nation the Nazis invaded, there were dedicated resistance groups. The Yugoslavian resistance, which beat the Croats, helped liberate Sarajevo, and took Trieste. The Soviet partisans, who fought for their country when their armies could not. The Germans in the Ruhr pocket who helped capture Dusseldorf. Or perhaps the Italians, who liberated Naples and killed a German general or even the French Resistance, who fought to free Paris and) made up for their lack of military prowess with their sabotage and spying.
American industry also was critical, too. The efficiency at which the US produced vehicles and other materials made them able to overwhelm their opposition, especially with the added benefit of being out of range from enemy bombers:
War production profoundly changed American industry. Companies already engaged in defense work expanded. Others, like the automobile industry, were transformed completely. In 1941, more than three million cars were manufactured in the United States. Only 139 more were made during the entire war. Instead, Chrysler made fuselages. General Motors made airplane engines, guns, trucks and tanks. Packard made Rolls-Royce engines for the British air force. And at its vast Willow Run plant in Ypsilanti, Michigan, the Ford Motor Company performed something like a miracle 24-hours a day. The average Ford car had some 15,000 parts. The B-24 Liberator long-range bomber had 1,550,000. One came off the line every 63 minutes.Shipyards turned out tonnage so fast that by the autumn of 1943 all Allied shipping sunk since 1939 had been replaced. In 1944 alone, the United States built more planes than the Japanese did from 1939 to 1945. By the end of the war, more than half of all industrial production in the world would take place in the United States.
Patriotism of soldiers certainly helps, yet the fanaticism of such countries as Japan and Germany did not win them the war. Japan's industry was unable to catch up with the sheer industrial might of the US (just look how fast each side could build aircraft carriers, for example). Germany, meanwhile, had to divide up their resources for the war effort, according to the United States Strategic Bombing Survey. German industry was disabled by repeated air raids that caused massive devastation:
In the wake of these attacks there are great paths of destruction. In Germany, 3,600,000 dwelling units, approximately 20% of the total, were destroyed or heavily damaged. Survey estimates show some 300,000 civilians killed and 780,000 wounded. The number made homeless aggregates 7,500,000. The principal German cities have been largely reduced to hollow walls and piles of rubble. German industry is bruised and temporarily paralyzed. These are the scars across the face of the enemy, the preface to the victory that followed.
The air raids that harassed Germany, were most effective when combined with a divided front. With up to 16 million American soldiers committed to the entire war, it would be hard to argue that the Nazis, (with 20 million) could sustain themselves against half that amount when combined with the scores of Soviet soldiers and the 5 million Brits (along with other Allied forces) also committed to the conflict.
Faria also arrogantly assumes that the Swiss were not invaded due to their zealous gun culture. More likely theories include the fact that the Swiss were not only tough fighters but could use the rugged terrain to their advantage. Furthermore, it's believed that the Nazis wanted to use the country's banking system to store their gold. As such, an invasion would likely ruin their financial interests.
Faria and others, such as Robert B Young, claim that authoritarian regimes can be destroyed by gun ownership. Nazis (surprise, surprise) are brought up. This is a fallacy that has many reasons for being wrong. First off, why have Australia, Canada, the UK, and Japan not become dictatorships after passing far stricter gun laws? Second of all, the supposed gun control=Nazism argument is laughably absurd. Yes, the Nazis did ban Jews from gun ownership, yet no such gun laws are being proposed in the US. Furthermore, the claim that there would have been an uprising by German Jews going Rambo against the Nazis is undermined by many factors, not the least of which is the fact that they made up 1% of the population. That is not to say that there's any problem with them rising up, yet as pointed out by Alan E Steinweis, an expert of the Holocaust:
It is preposterous to argue that the possession of firearms would have enabled them to mount resistance against a systematic program of persecution implemented by a modern bureaucracy, enforced by a well-armed police state, and either supported or tolerated by the majority of the German population. Mr. Carson’s suggestion that ordinary Germans, had they had guns, would have risked their lives in armed resistance against the regime simply does not comport with the regrettable historical reality of a regime that was quite popular at home. Inside Germany, only the army possessed the physical force necessary for defying or overthrowing the Nazis, but the generals had thrown in their lot with Hitler early on.The failure of Jews to mount an effective defense against the Waffen-SS in the Warsaw Ghetto in 1943 provides a good example of what happens when ordinary citizens with small arms go up against a well-equipped force. The uprising in the ghetto possesses enduring symbolic significance, as an instance of Jews’ determination to resist their oppression. But the uprising saved few Jewish lives and had little to no impact on the course of either World War II or the Holocaust. Jews around the world did, to be sure, react to the Holocaust by concluding that they needed to protect themselves from anti-Semites more effectively. But they understood that this would be accomplished not through the individual acquisition of firearms, but rather through the establishment of a Jewish state with an army to defend it.
Furthermore, Nazi gun control was an anti-Semitic propaganda tool. Mass shootings were hardly a problem in Germany at the time. In fact, the Nazi gun control law, while certainly aimed at disarming the Jews, also extended access to firearms for groups the Nazi regime did approve of. Licenses for hunting, for instance, were loosened to allow ownership of any gun.
Faria cites other genocides as proof of why gun control is problematic. He and his allies list, in addition to the Nazis, the failed Hungarian Revolution of 1956, Castro's despotism in Cuba, and the Armenian, Cambodian, and Rwandan genocides. Faria uses the Warsaw ghetto as proof, yet seems to forget that the Jews who rebelled had armament comparable to civilians in the US, with one machine gun and some pistols. The Warsaw Uprising that he approvingly speaks of, meanwhile, relied on military-grade equipment such as sub-machine guns, not hunting rifles or more civilian-oriented weapons. The fact that it was an organized effort certainly helped, but so did their use of military-grade equipment that they made or had airdropped. The Hungarian revolution is also cited. What is neglected, however, is that the rebels actually won the first phase of the revolt. It was after the Soviet military arrived that Hungary gave in. He then mentions the dictatorship of Fidel Castro claiming that shortly after he took office, he asked " ¿Armas para que?", "Weapons for whom?". Yet what Castro meant was that the weapons that his 26 of July Movement had captured from the military and police would stay as such. Furthermore, he was talking about military weapons being smuggled and stolen.
Yet I tell you here and now that two days ago elements of certain organizations broke into the San Antonio barracks, which are under the jurisdiction of Commander Camilo Cienfuegos and also under my jurisdiction as commander in chief of the armed forces, and carried away 500 small arms, (16?) machine guns, and 80,000 cartridges.
The conversation does shift to gangsters, which presumably entails taking away civilian weapons, yet the conversation revolved around other rebels stockpiling weapons to counter Castro. Faria uses the 1959 Escambray rebellion in an attempt to point out the negatives of gun control, yet seems to miss the context. The Escambray rebels lost because, according to Ernest Volkman, they had lost CIA support, the elimination of many CIA assets by Castro likely factoring in. Faria has cited the small numbers and lack of supplies. Overall, to use gun control for the Escambray rebels is simply a poor argument, as it was other factors that lead to their defeat. Furthermore, as of 2017, it is believed that there are 2.10 guns per 100 people in Cuba. In fact, citizens can purchase firearms for hunting and self-defense. Why have no residents rebelled against the government using these weapons? And seeing as how little documentation there is of Cuba's gun culture, could it be that easy access to firearms would not have made much of a difference?
Armenia, Cambodia, and Rwanda are also ridiculous comparisons. In Armenia, the government did in fact pass a law in 1911 that required Armenians surrender their weapons. It was the outbreak of WWI that made the genocide inevitable, as long-held contempt for the Armenians by the Young Turks fueled suspicions that the Armenians would rebel against them. Furthermore, the Ottomans had forbidden groups like the Armenians from gun ownership for centuries. And before the 1911 law, a pogrom killed hundreds of thousands of Armenians in the 1890s. When the Armenians did have their guns taken, it was weapons that soldiers had been given, not just hunting rifles or handguns they owned for self-defense/hunting. To argue gun control enabled the genocide forgets the nuances behind the affair. The Armenian genocide website itself argues that it was not armed resistance that would have ended the genocide, but international awareness.
Cambodia is the next example, as Pol Pot did in fact eliminate guns. Unfortunately, most of those guns belonged to the upper-class:
Firearms ownership rates in rural rice farming communities practising subsistence agriculture have been very low in Cambodia, and firearms have not been part of traditional livelihood strategies. Cambodia is not rich in large game, and game meat is not part of the typical rural diet, which is largely based on the consumption of rice, with fish as a source of protein. Nutrition surveys have demonstrated that only a minority of the rural population eat any meat at all (27–34 per cent of children aged 24–59 months were found to have eaten some meat [Helmers and Kenefick, 1999, pp. 72–73]), and most of this is derived from livestock, such as chicken, pork, and to a lesser extent cattle. Low firearms ownership rates in rural society are also the outcome of government policies and low rural incomes. To counter communist and anti-colonial insurgencies, the French colonial rulers (1863–1953) passed several laws to prevent Cambodian peasants from arming themselves (Kopel, Gallant, and Eisen, 2005, p. 6; page no. from e-publication). The laws passed between 1920 and 1938 imposed a strict licensing system and only allowed hunters to own a single gun...Available evidence suggests that unlike in many Western societies, private firearms ownership during the early period of Cambodia’s independence before the Khmer Rouge took over (1953–75) was predominantly a characteristic of the urban male elite, who were mainly in government employment
While French colonists did place restrictions on gun ownership in the 1920s and 1930s, Cambodians in general never really were interested in it. Furthermore, the efforts to counter Communist insurgents involved the very same gun control that is seen as taking citizen's rights, yet it failed to stop Pol Pot from taking the country over. Overall, one could argue that lighter gun restrictions would have given the Cambodian populace a better chance, yet since they did not really have a thriving gun culture, it would have little impact. Those that did were upper-class, meaning that they were often in the minority.
As for Rwanda, I had trouble finding good sources. Rwanda does indeed allow gun ownership, yet the one law I was looking for, which was passed in 1979, had little information for me. As such, I'll have to make do with what I could find. The 1979 law was amended in 2000, 6 years after the genocide, to do such things as ban access of government firearms from the population. Basing the gun regulations off of this chart, I assume that Faria believes that gun registration, confiscation abilities, and more were what occurred. The Small Arms Survey's analysis of Rwanda, however, makes no mention of any abuse of this confiscation system. Furthermore, the idea that registration enabled the slaughter of Tutsi tribesmen and Hutu moderates ignores the fact that many Rwandans were required since the Belgian colonization to carry ID cards which gave their ethnicity. Alain Destexhe, a Belgian politician who worked for Doctors Without Borders in areas such as Rwanda, even goes so far as to say:
it was the ethnic classification registered on identity cards introduced by the Belgians that served as the basic instrument for the genocide of the Tutsi people...
Once again, it was an organized military faction, the Rwanda Patriotic Front, that stopped the genocide. It was not armed civilians, but a faction with weapons that far outclassed those legally available to civilians in the US. To argue that gun rights would stop these regimes ignores events that Faria cites.
Look at most regimes over the past 20 years, and you'll find that they had fairly large gun ownership. Sudan had millions of civilian weapons in circulation in 2007, yet it was 12 years before Omar al-Bashir was toppled, and not due to armed civilians. In Venezuela and Libya, authoritarian regimes grew in spite of high gun ownership rates. Yet easily the most surprising is the case of Iraq, where a large portion of the population, in spite of strict gun laws, owned firearms, yet Saddam stayed in power, enduring several rebellions and only being beaten by a US-led invasion. Saudi Arabia, an authoritarian regime in it's own right, had the 7th highest rate of gun ownership in the world.
Heading back to WWII and gun cultures, Faria makes the case that the only other country to offer the Nazis any resistance, the USSR, was largely due to the NKVD holding soldiers in place. He says:
just as Stalin’s “Patriotic War” stimulated Russians to fight for their motherland, and to make sure they did so the NKVD’s SMERCH units (Soviet military police and counter-intelligence units) were everywhere behind the front lines to stiffen Soviet fighting resolve if their morale lapsed.
While certainly, the Soviets did carry out these measures, they had already repelled the assault on Moscow when this order, No. 227, which organized such units, was passed. In late 1944, blocking detachments were disbanded, largely due to improvements on the front lines, yet their impact on morale arguably helped hurt Soviet morale almost as much as it fixed it. Furthermore, Faria also seems to overestimate the role of SMERSH units. While indeed responsible for slaughtering many deserters, the reality is far from what is depicted in such media as Enemy at the Gates. Geoffrey Roberts, in his book Stalin's Wars, writes that of the detainees arrested by these units,
3,980 were arrested, 1,189 were shot, 2,961 were sent to penal battalions or companies and 131,094 were returned to their units.
Faria insists that only Americans were driven by as sense of patriotism and civic duty, yet the same holds true for the Soviets, in spite of the monstrous actions of their government. Roberts states that Stalin's skill in tapping into Soviet patriotic fervor was essential to their victory, the patriotic messages providing a useful image of a united Soviet nation against a foreign menace.
Also mentioned are Filipino, Guatemalan, and other insurgents as proof of the importance of gun ownership. Once again, Faria makes more mistakes. He assumes that privately-owned firearms are what these groups used when it was also military-grade gear. The insurgents in the Philippines, meanwhile, operated even after strict gun laws were passed by president Marcos, and likely benefited from the jungle terrain. As for Guatemala, Faria seems to once again conflate organized insurgency with gun rights. The Guatemalan insurgents that held the regime back for decades received Soviet and Czech weapons that were smuggled through Communist states such as Nicaragua. The stereotypical patriot who owns guns to protect from an oppressive regime was not the kind of individual who fought against the government. Furthermore, many of these rebels were often peasants who were likely too poor to own firearms.
Overall, Faria misuses countless events to fit his narrative. His claims are so poorly constructed that they are almost impossible to support. Those that use historic events as basis often neglect to mention other factors, such as cultural differences, or history.
On Gun Registration, the NRA, Adolf Hitler, and Nazi Gun Laws: Exploding the Gun Culture Wars (A Call to Historians) Bernard E. Harcourt
Soviet Arms and Central American Turmoil, ALBERTO R. COLL
Small Arms Survey: The Use and Perception of Weapons before and after Conflict: Evidence from Rwanda By Cécelle Meijer and Philip Verwimp
Small Arms Survey: How Many Weapons Are There in Cambodia? By Christina Wille
Alain Destexhe, Rwanda and Genocide in the Twentieth Century; Pg 47
Roberts, Geoffrey; Stalin's Wars From World War to Cold War, 1939-1953 pgs 22, 132
Volkman, Ernest 1995. "Our man in Havana. Cuban double agents 1961–1987" in Espionage: The Greatest Spy Operations of the Twentieth Century,
Roberts, Walter R. (1973). Tito, Mihailović and the Allies 1941–1945; pg 319
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